ZA Riyadh*, MA Rahman, SR Saha and MI Hossain
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2018, Volume 5, Number 2; Pages: 173-179
A field experiment was conducted during April 2017 to April 2018 at the jackfruit orchard in Madhupur tract of Shibpur, Narsingdi. To observe the soil physical conditions and to determine the changes in soil chemical properties aroid (Colocasia esculenta), ginger (Zingiber officinale), turmeric (Curcuma longa) and chilli (Capsicum annuum) were grown with jackfruit tree (Artocarpus heterophyllus). The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The results revealed that soil temperature was reduced by 3.37-9.25% in different crop associated agroforestry systems (AFs) than open seasonal crop field, while soil moisture was found to be increased by 10-20%. In general, all studied parameters of soil chemical properties both in agroforestry and non-agroforestry fields increased after experimentation from their respective initial fields. Soil pH was raised by 1.5-8.84% in Jackfruit based AFs than open field after experimentation. As compared to open crop field after study, total nitrogen of the soil was promoted by 9-19% in seasonal crop associated AFs. Jackfruit based agroforestry with different seasonal crops increased soil organic carbon (SOC) by 3-10% compared to open field after study. Results also revealed that soil organic matter (SOM) were increased by 3.35-8.62% in AFs fields after experimentation than open field and by 3.36-19.39% than AFs fields before study.
Keywords: Open field, Soil temperature, Soil moisture, Total nitrogen, Soil organic matter
K K Saha, M M Hossain, C K Saha, R Bhatacharya and M K Hasan
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2014, Volume 1, Number 2; Pages: 307-313
This research work was conducted on the effect of moisture content on raw material of briquette made of coconut coir dust mixed with rice husk at different ratio. This study sought to assess the effective moisture content of mixing briquette production and to establish the demand and willingness of potential users of briquette from coir dust and rice husk. The briquettes were prepared on screw press extruder briquetting machine from raw material. The prepared briquettes after sun drying were subjected to various tests for assessing the quality of briquette fuel. This was done prior to the distribution of the briquette to potential users to collaborate their views. It was observed that briquette made moisture content at 10.8% and 11.9% (wet basis), from mixed coconut coir dust and rice husk at the ratio of 20:80, 40:60 and 50:50. Briquette made moisture content at 10.8%, from mixed coconut coir dust and rice husk at the ratio of 20:80, 40:60 and 50:50 had desirable properties as compared to briquette made, moisture content at 11.9% (wet basis). The compressive strength, percent of resistance to water penetration and calorific value of briquette of mixing ratio of 20:80,40:60 and 50:50 at 10.8% were found 115kg cm-2, 96kg cm-2, 82kg cm-2, 89%,86%,78% and 4532 kcal kg-1, 4243 kcal kg-1, 3657kcal kg-1, respectively. In case of briquette at moisture content at 11.9% (wet basis), the values were 110kg cm-2,90kg cm-2,78kg cm-2, 88%,84%,74% and 4467 kcal kg-1, 4043 kcal kg-1,3457kcal kg-1, respectively. A survey was undertaken to assess the willingness of the potential users to use the briquette. Fifteen respondents were purposively selected from tea stall and the hotel for the survey. Responses from the survey indicated that the briquette of mixing ratio of 20:80, 40:60 at 10.8% M.C and 11.9% M.C were easy to ignite, had a long burning time and good heat output than rice husk briquette. Finally 93% of the respondents indicated their willingness to use the briquette of mixing ratio 20:80 at 10.8% M.C, if the price was comparable to rice husk briquette.
Keywords: Briquette, coconut coir dust, resistance to water penetration, user acceptability
M K Hasan, T Islam and K K Saha
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2014, Volume 1, Number 2; Pages: 299-305
The study was conducted at two flood prone upazillas under Bhola district. Farmers were selected from five villages and they were classified as small, medium and large based on their own land. Generally the farmers used traditional storage structures such as dole, motka/jala, steel drum, gunny and plastic bags. The status of average production, consumption, sale, farm use, labor payment, storage volume, cost, durability and losses of different storage structures for wheat and seeds were reviewed and identified. Steel drum, motka/jala, gunny and plastic bags were found more economical for the farmers considering the capital cost, expected life and storage loss. It was found that about 71% farmers were affected by the flood and average 12% stored grains were damaged by the flood in 2009. Around 61% farmers expressed their interest on co-operative storage system at the time of flood to store food grains with pay. The place and type of storage structures were identified based on the opinion of farmers. From the study it is suggested that, to construct storage structures at a safe and easily accessible place, the type of structures should be pucca one and should be elevated from the ground level.
Keywords: Wheat storage, storage facilities, storage loss and flood prone areas
P K Sarma, J U Ahmed A K M A Al-Amin, M M Islam and K Fatema
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2014, Volume 1, Number 2; Pages: 289-297
The study was designed to determine the factors that influence the cattle farmers to participate and motivate in cattle marketing and preferred marketing channels in special focus on Pabna and Sirajganj Char areas of northern Bangladesh. Purposive sampling “snowballing” procedure was employed to contact 180 respondents. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect data from small-scale cattle farmers through face to face interview. The data was analyzed using the Heckman two-stage selection model and Multinomial logistic regression model. Six factors were identified motivating cattle farmers to choose marketing channel namely, the gender of the household head, marketing information received, education and number of cattle sold. It was found that age, gender, level of education and hard size significantly influenced the decision to participate in cattle marketing. Gender, price information, group marketing, marketing experience, vehicle ownership and marketing under contract significantly influenced the extent of market participation. Further, gender, group marketing, hard size, price information, marketing under contract and vehicle ownership significantly influenced the choice of cattle marketing channels. The study strongly recommends increasing the number of cattle marked through formal channels and need to lower transaction cost, increase bargaining power, increase the hard size, access to information and participation in terminal markets. The current policy advice should focus on the effects of policy distortions and adequate attention should be given to the serious, embedded institutional deficiencies that limit many commercial farmers from taking advantage of market opportunities.
Keywords: Cattle entrepreneurs, influencing factors, market participation
M N Khatun, M R U Mian and M A Khatun
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2014, Volume 1, Number 2; Pages: 279-287
Credit is an important factor for triggering agricultural growth when it is utilized properly. This study aimed at examining the credit utilization pattern and repayment behavior of the farmers using cross sectional data of 80 farmers belonged to five different villages under Mirpur Upazila of Kushtia district in 2009. Respondents were grouped into small, medium and large farm size and analysis was done accordingly. The study revealed that the lion’s share of loaned money was utilized productively which indicated borrower’s positive attitude towards productive utilization of credit in the study area. Overall loan recovery scenario was found to be quite satisfactory. Self-consciousness and hope of getting future loan were reported by most of the borrowers as major factors of timely loan repayment. Econometric result shows that respondents’ education, farm size and household income were statistically significant contributing factors towards loan repayment behaviour of the respondents.
Keywords: Farmer’s behaviour, credit, loan utilization, repayment
B Banu, M A Khatun, M M Rahman, F A Mila and M N Khatun
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2014, Volume 1, Number 2; Pages: 273-278
This study was designed to determine the costs, returns and relative profitability of BR-28, BR-29 and Hybrid Hira rice production. A total of 90 farmers out of which 30 producing each were selected randomly from three villages of Nageswari Upazila of Kurigram district in Bangladesh. It revealed that cultivation of BR-28, BR-29 and Hybrid Hira was a profitable business from the viewpoint of farmers. Analysis of costs and returns showed that variable cost was found to be higher for BR-28 variety. The return per hectare above variable cost for BR-28 was found Tk 44764.26 while for BR-29 and Hybrid Hira variety, it was Tk 53290.24 and 64305.62, respectively. Total cost per hectare for BR-28 was Tk 92635.04 and for BR-29 and for Hybrid Hira variety, it was Tk 92464.07 and 86160.81, respectively. Return above total cost for Hybrid Hira was found higher than BR-28 and BR-29 varieties. Therefore, production of Hybrid Hira was found more profitable compared to BR-28 and BR-29. It was observed from Cobb-Douglas production function that most of the included variables had significant impact on rice production. The study also identified some problems faced by the farmers and they were more severe for the production of Hybrid Hira variety compared to HYV’s BR-28 and BR-29 varieties. The study, therefore, suggests for taking some measures to solve the problems in order to expand production of selected rice varieties in the study areas as well as other parts of the country.
Keywords: Rice, production costs, returns, profitability
M B Alam, M A Islam, S S Marine, A Rashid, M A Hossain and H Rashid
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2014, Volume 1, Number 2; Pages: 265-271
Fish cage culture allows intensive production in waterbodies without conventional preparation for aquaculture.Considering the importance and prospects of cage culture in Bangladesh, the present experiment was undertaken to study the effect of stocking density on growth performances and production potential of tilapia (Oreochromisniloticus) under cage culture conditions and to develop a suitable method of tilapia cage culture in inland open water body like Old Brahmaputra River. Three stocking densities (100, 150 and 200 fish m-3) of 2.78 g mean initial individual body weight of fingerlings in three different treatments (T-100, T-150 and T-200) each with three replicates were used. The fishes were supplied with high protein (30%) commercial feed at 10% of body weight twice daily. Water quality parameters namely transparency, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, phosphate were found within the suitable limit for fish culture.The result of the present study showed that the fish in the treatment T-150 resulted the best individual weight gain (90.72g), average daily gains (0.67 g), percent weight gains (3263%), specific growth rates (1.13%day-1) and the net production rates (13608gm-3135 days-1)followed by treatments T-100 and T-200, respectively.The net yield and growth performances showed a significant difference with increasing stocking density (P<0.01). The most effective stocking density was150 fish m−3 cage for Nile tilapia considering growth performances and production potential. Therefore, it can be concluded the growth performance of Nile tilapia is density dependent.
Keywords: Cage culture, stocking density,growth performance, production, Oreochromisniloticus
M S Islam, M M Rahman, M H Rashid, R Akter and K K U Ahmed
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2014, Volume 1, Number 2; Pages: 259-264
An experiment was carried out at 12 suspended nylon net enclosures (hapa) installed in earthen pond with a view to develop a low cost formulated diet for rearing of Penaeus monodon post larvae (PL) for a period of 40 days starting from 28 April to 7 June 2013. Three experimental diets with a protein level of 40% were formulated using locally available feed ingredients. These diets were categorized into 3 treatments viz., T1 (diet-1), T2 (diet-2) and T3 (diet-3). T4 (control) was the commercial diet and each treatment had three replicates. P. monodon PL (ABW 0.005g) were stocked in each hapa at the rate of 500 PL m-2. PL of nine hapas were fed with formulated diets in three times daily at the rate of 100% of the total biomass in 1st week, 50% in next consecutive 3 week and 20% for the rest of the days. In another 3 hapas, commercial diet was supplemented for PL according to same system. Observed water quality parameters were found to be within suitable ranges for PL of P. monodon. Significantly higher (P<0.05) weight (0.433 g) of shrimp PL was found in T3 (diet-3) than those of T1 (0.312 g), T2 (0.356 g) and T4 (0.393 g). Food conversion ratio (FCR) was achieved lower in T3 (1.70) compared to T1 (1.89), T2 (1.84) and T4 (1.77), respectively. The highest survival was also obtained in T3 (73.4%) followed by T4 (69.6%), T2 (65.7%) and T1 (62.8%). Therefore, the findings of the present study reveals that diet-3 containing fish meal 32%, soya bean meal 32%, mustard oil cake 20%, rice polish 5%, wheat bran 6%, wheat flour 4% and vitamin as well as minerals 1% may be recommended for post larvae rearing of P. monodon in pond conditions.
Keywords: Penaeus monodon post larvae, growth, survival, feed conversion ratio, hapa
T Dey, A F Rabbey, P P Barman, M T Alam and M S Uddin
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2014, Volume 1, Number 2; Pages: 253-258
Apparent digestibility co-efficient (ADC) of high fishmeal replaced practical diets for climbing perch (Anabus testudineus) was determined by gradual replacement level of dietary fish meal with equal ratio of meat and bone meal (MBM) and protein concentrate (PC). Four iso-nitrogenous diets (40% crude protein) were formulated by replacing 0 (T1), 70 (T2), 85 (T3) and 100% (T4) fish meal with a mixture of MBM and PC (1:1). Chromic oxide (0.5%) was used as a marker to the feed formulation. Ten fish (25 ± 1.31 g) were transferred into 12 indoor glass aquarium (0.243 m3 each) to fed with experimental diets twice daily as triplicate group. Feaces were collected through siphoning process. ADC of protein, lipid and dry matter was significantly higher (P<0.05) in T1 which were, 87.54±1.59, 85.42±1.05 and 69.62± 1.81, respectively. Similarly, no significant difference of apparent digestibility for dry matter found between T2 and T3; T3 and T4. For protein digestibility, similar result had showed between T1 and T2; T2 and T3. Lipid digestibility was not significantly different in fish fed diet, replaced up to 70% fishmeal protein with MBM and PC. No significant difference of lipid digestibility was also found in T3 (73.09±1.45) and T4 (74.38±1.25). Considering the fishmeal availability, farmers economic and practical field condition it could be concluded from the present study that 70 to 85% FM protein could be replaced with MBM and PC (1:1) in diet of climbing perch A. testudineus.
Keywords: Fishmeal replacement, digestibility, climbing perch
R Begum, T Akter, P P Barman, S S Marine and M M Hossain
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2014, Volume 1, Number 2; Pages: 247-252
Marine fishes contribute a very momentous role in the fisheries sector which is a paramount sector especially for the coastal community. The study was designed to observe the marine fish marketing system in the fishery ghat, Chittagong from July to December, 2013. The study was shown H. nehereus (7.2%) contribute highest species composition in the market whereas the highest market price was recorded for P. chinensis. There were three types of market (primary, secondary and retail market) which were almost entirely managed and controlled by a group of intermediaries involving sales agents, suppliers, wholesalers and retailers. Fishermen and fish assemblers sell their catch to suppliers (baperies or paikers) with the help of commission agents (aratdars), who got 3-5% commission through auctioning at the landing centers. Marketing cost of fish was highest in the secondary market (5.60±0.383 BDTkg-1) followed by the primary (4.30±0.401BDT kg-1) and retail (3.20±0.208 BDT kg-1) market. The income of wholesaler’s was highest (8000-1000BDT Day-1) followed by baparies (600-900 BDT Day-1), aratdars (500-800 BDT Day-1) and fisherman (220-500 BDT Day-1). Infrastructure of fish markets were not adequate with packaging, sanitation, water supply, drainage, cleaning, washing, maintenance and other necessary facilities.
Keywords: Marketing channel, marketing costs, marketing constraints, SWOT analysis
P P Barman, R Begum, S S Marine, S K Barman and A K Barman
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2014, Volume 1, Number 2; Pages: 239-245
The study was carried out from May 2013 to April 2014 to find out the fish marketing systems and socio economic status of aratdars of six upazilas in Gaibandha district. Four categories of fishes (Exotic, Indigenous, Live and SIS) were observed where maximum fishes were gathered from the surrounding area but imported from other countries was very rare in these markets. Commission agents obtained 3-4% commission from farmers was identified during the study period. The highest landing was recorded 391482.40 kg yr-1 (Pangasius pangasius in Gobindogonj) while the lowest landing was recorded 545.20 kg yr-1 (Channa punctatus in Sundargong). Fish price assorted from BDT 64.20±3.82 (Chanda ranga) to 798.80±10.09 Tk kg-1 (Ompok pabda). Preponderance (51.13 % in Gaibandha Sadar) aratdars were studied from VI-X class. Agriculture was major secondary occupation of the aratdars (56.44% in Polashbari to 81.49 % in Fulchari). The majority (46.23% in Fulchari to 70.73% in Gaibandha Sadar) aratdars were found to earn Tk 500-1000 day-1, while, only 16.71% aratdars earn Tk 100-500 day-1 in Gaibandha sadar and 22% aratdars in Gobindagonj earn above Tk 1000 day-1. It was remarkable that there was no private clinic facility for health service of aratdars in Fulchari upazila, but 68.02% aratdars got health service from community hospitals. Except very few market, infrastructure of blanket and retail fish markets were not adequate with packaging, sanitation, water supply, drainage, cleaning, washing, maintenance and repairs.
Keywords: Transportation system, marketing channel, market price, socio economic status of aratdars
S M Bari, M A A Mamun, S M I Khalil, M M Hossain, S S Marine and M M Hossain
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2014, Volume 1, Number 2; Pages: 231-237
The present experiment was aimed to investigate the infestation of helminth parasites and their effects on different size groups of walking catfish, Clarias batrachus from haor basin of Sylhet region, Bangladesh. A total of 100 C. batrachus fish were collected from different natural water bodies like beels, haor and adjacent fish markets of Sylhet namely Lal Bazar, Major Tilla and Kazir Bazar. The collected C. batrachus were divided into three length groups namely small (<13cm), medium (13-18 cm) and larger (>18cm). Among thecollected 100 individuals of C. batrachus, 76 were found to be infested with 1855parasites individuals of seven different endohelminth parasitic species i.e. Orientocreadium batrachoides, Bovienia serialis, Lytocestusindicus, Lytocestus birmanicus, Djombangia penetrans, Pseudocaryophyllaeus indica and Paracamallanusspiculo gobernaculus all of which are belonging to three different groups (i.e. trematode, cestode and nematode). It reveals thatthe % gain in mean head length (GHL) and % weight loss (WL)of C. batrachus were found to be variedincreasingly in every length groups with high (snowballing) level of endohelminth infestation. Among the endo-helminth infested C. batrachus, comparatively higher % GHL6.0 were recorded in medium length group over smaller (5.0 cm) and larger group (5.0 cm), whereas higher mean % WL8.0 were recorded in smaller length group followed by larger (7.0) and medium (6.0) group. Seasonal variation in hleminths parasitic infestation and its effect explicated in-terms of % GHL and % WLin different length groups of C. batrachus revealed that high %GHL of C. batrachus along with % WL were observed in highly infested cluster over the low infested and non-infested set in every length group duringdifferent seasons of the yearnamely pre-monsoon, monsoon and post- monsoon.The observed highest % WL were recorded in smaller (13.0) length group in pre-monsoon and medium (14.0) group in monsoon, whereas lowest (1.0) in low infestation sub cluster of the larger length group wasrecorded during monsoon. The observed %GHL of C. batrachus were highest in highly infested cluster of smaller length group (12.0) and lowest in larger (2.0) group du ring pre-monsoon, followed by highest (11.0) in small and lowest (4.0) in medium length group during monsoon season.Thus the present finding reveals that over the different season of the year, % gain of mean head length (cm) and % WL (g) has increasing along with increased level of helminthes infestation.
Keywords: Seasonal variation, helminthes infestation, Clarias batrachus, gain head length, weight loss, haor basin
R Hasan, M H Rahman, A Hussain, A Muqit, A Hossain, M Ali and M S Islam
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2014, Volume 1, Number 2; Pages: 227-230
A survey was conducted in different tea estates of greater Sylhet region and Bangladesh Tea Research Institute during April to July 2013 to assess the relationship of red rust disease of tea with topography (Tillah, hillock and flat) of the estates, plant age and shading conditions. A wide variation in disease incidence and severity was found among various tea estates. Disease incidence and severity were significantly higher in flat areas compared to hillock and tillah areas. Tea plants of tillah, hillock and flat areas were found 49, 59 and 70% disease affected, respectively. Mature plants had more disease incidence compared to younger plants. Shading conditions showed significant impact on disease reaction. Less amount of disease was observed in shaded areas as compared unshaded ones.
Keywords: red rust, tea, topography, shade, plant age
M S Uddin, M M Rahman, M M Hossain and M A K Mian
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2014, Volume 1, Number 2; Pages: 221-226
Combining ability in eight eggplant genotypes were studied at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU), Gazipur, Bangladesh during March 2007 to September 2008. Eggplant genotypes were crossed and evaluated for different plant and flower characters. Considering general combining ability (GCA) effects, the parents P3, P4 and P7 were the good general combiner for promoting early flowering and fruiting and P3, P4 and P6 for plant height and canopy. Considering specific combining ability (SCA) effects, the cross P1×P6, P1×P4, P1×P8 and P1×P7 were important for early flowering and fruiting; P3×P8 for plant height and canopy and P5×P7 for plant canopy. Therefore, for the improvement of flowering and plant characters the parents P3, P4, and P7 and the crosses P1×P6, P1×P4, P1×P8 and P1×P7 could be selected for summer cultivation in Bangladesh.
Keywords: Combining ability, eggplant, flower character, summer
M S Uddin, M M Rahman, M M Hossain and M A K Mian
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2014, Volume 1, Number 2; Pages: 213-219
Combining ability in eight eggplant genotypes were crossed and studied at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU), Gazipur, Bangladesh during March 2007 to September 2008. Eggplant genotypes were crossed and evaluated for yield and yield contributing characters. Considering general combining ability (GCA) effects, the parents P1, P2 and P6 were better general combiner for number of fruits plant-1 and yield plant-1; P3, P5 and P8 for fruit weight; P4 for fruit length and P3 and P8 for fruit breadth and P1, P6, P2 and P7 for yield plant-1. Considering specific combining ability (SCA) effects, the crosses P5×P7 were important for fruit length, fruit weight, number of fruits and yield plant-1; P5 ×P8 for fruit breadth, fruit weight, and yield plant-1; P1×P6 and P2×P7 for fruit breadth, number of fruit and yield plant-1; P1×P6, P2×P7, P4×P7 and P5˟ P7 for number of fruits and yield plant-1. Therefore, the parents P1, P6, P2 and P3, P5 and P8 could be considered as better parents for higher yield and the crosses P1×P6, P5×P7, P2×P7, P2×P4, P4×P7, P4×P8, P3×P8 and P5×P8 could be considered as promising hybrids for getting higher yield for summer cultivation in Bangladesh.
Keywords: combining ability, eggplant, yield, summer
R Roy, A F M S Islam, M N H Miah, M S Uddin and A Sikdar
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2014, Volume 1, Number 2; Pages: 207-212
A study was undertaken to know the extent and causes of genetic erosion of citrus species at Jaintapur upazila of Sylhet district during July to November 2013. A total number of 15 citrus species were recorded from the studied homestead areas. Sorbati lebu (Citrus limmetta) and Deshi lebu (Citrus limon) were identified as endangered while Kolombo lebu and Pati lebu (Citrus limon) as critically endangered species. Kot lebu, Sulang lebu and Tuna lebu were identified as extinct from the study area. On the other hand, Zara lebu (Citrus medica), Ada jamir (Citrus assamensis), Kata jamir (Citrus jambhiri), Kurun jamir (Citrus aurantium), Elachi lebu (Citrus limon), Kagzi lebu (Citrus aurantifollia) and Komola lebu (Citrus sinensis) were found in safe condition as they were grown commonly in most homesteads of the study area. Diseases and insect pest infestation were the most serious problems responsible for the genetic erosion of citrus species followed by lack of credit facilities, and quality seed and seedling. In the study area farmers’ perceived most importance for homestead citrus species conservation was related to fruit and food (83%) followed by subsistence family income (49%) and soil erosion control (32%).
Keywords: Genetic erosion, conservation, citrus
M A Rahman, M S Noman, M A Maleque, S Hossain and Z J Chowdhury
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2014, Volume 1, Number 2; Pages: 199-205
An attempt was made to evaluate ten released sugarcane varieties viz., Isd 31, Isd 32, Isd 33, Isd 34, Isd 35, Isd 36, Isd 37, Isd 38, Isd 39 and Isd 40 against their tolerances to major insect pests. The study was conducted at the experimental farm of Bangladesh Sugarcane Research Institute, Ishwardi, Pabna during the cropping season of 2009-2010. The tolerant characteristic was measured by observing their infestation level against four major insect pests such as rootstock borer, stem borer, top shoot borer and white grubs. The lowest infestation of stem borer (21.46% on stock basis; 17.63% on internode basis) was recorded in Isd 36, rootstock borer (17.48%) in Isd 39 and top shoot borer (7.68%) in Isd 37, suggesting their higher tolerance against these major insect pests. The variety Isd 34 had the highest infestation of stem borer (54.66%), followed by rootstock borer (39.58%), top shoot borer (35.62%) and white grub (6.00%). These indicated higher susceptibility of the variety Isd 34 to insect pest attack. The lowest infestation of stem borer was found in the sugarcane variety Isd 36 which indicated its higher resistance to insect pests especially the most devastating stem borer insect pest of sugarcane.
Keywords: Stem borer, top shoot borer, rootstock borer, white grub, tolerant
K M D Hossain, M A S Hossain, A F M S Islam, M M Islam and D Saha
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2014, Volume 1, Number 2; Pages: 193-198
A field experiment was conducted at the experimental farm of Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh during October 2007 to March 2008 to investigate the morpho-physiological characters, yield attributes and yield of ten exotic and two local onion genotypes viz. AV-15142, AV-17070, AV-21844, AV-21848, J-315, J-368, J-420, JM-315, JM-368, JM-420, BARI Piyaj-2 and BARI Piyaj-3. Among the genotypes BARI Piyaj-2 and BARI Piyaj-3 were the recommended varieties for both winter and summer cultivation and the rest of the genotypes were exotic. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Significant variations were found in all the morpho-physiological and yield contributing characters of onion. Results revealed that higher yield performing genotypes produced taller plants, higher number of leaves plant-1, longer and thicker leaves and thicker pseudostem except J-420. The exotic line J-420 showed superiority in plant height, leaf number, leaf length, leaf breadth and pseudostem diameter with intermediate yield. Investigation showed that low yield performing genotypes produced shorter plants, lower number of leaves and shorter leaves which resulted in lower bulb yield. Similarly, high yield performing genotypes produced thicker and larger bulb which resulted in higher bulb yield. The bulb of JM-315 matured earlier but showed lower performance in bulb yield. The genotypes AV-21844 and AV-21848 showed superiority in yield contributing characters. The genotype AV-21844 showed best performance in respect to storage quality, unsplitted bulb production, days to maturity of the bulb and bulb yield.
Keywords: Splitted bulb, exotic genotype, pseudostem ratio, chlorophyll
M S Islam, A F M S Islam, M A Aziz, K M D Hossain and M M Haque
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2014, Volume 1, Number 2; Pages: 181-192
Eleven treatment combinations were compared in the field during kharif season of 2006 for management of some jute diseases at Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh. The effectiveness of 11 treatment combinations viz. T1 = Vitavax-200 + Malathion 57 EC, T2 = Hot water + Malathion 57 EC, T3 = Recommended Urea + MP + TSP + Vitavax-200, T4 = Recommended Urea+MP+ TSP + vitavax-200 + Malathion 57 EC, T5 = Recommended Urea + MP + Hot water, T6 = Recommended Urea + MP + TSP + Hot water + Malathion 57 EC, T7 = Double dose of Urea+MP + TSP + Vitavax-200, T8 = Double dose of Urea + MP + TSP + Vitavax-200 +Malathion 57 EC, T9 = Double dose of Urea + MP + TSP + Hot water, T10 = Double dose of Urea + MP + TSP + Hot water + Malathion 57 EC and T11 = Control were used for the management of anthracnose, black band, stem rot and jute yellow mosaic disease. The treatments showed very pronounced effect in reducing infection and disease development by fungi and virus compared to control. The treatment T6 which included seed treatment with hot water, application of recommended dose of fertilizer and spraying of insecticide Malathion 57 EC has proven to be the best both in limiting diseases and increasing yield. This management strategy may be recommended for the farmers for greater and quality jute production
Keywords: Management, Jute diseases, Treatment, Kharif cropping season, Pesticides
M A Aziz, M Saha, M S Islam, M S Hossain and D Saha
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2014, Volume 1, Number 2; Pages: 175-179
Two experiments were conducted at farmers’ field, Tukerbazer, Sylhet during T. aman season 2011 and Boro season 2012 in order to test the integrated effect of different organic manures and inorganic fertilizers on the growth and yield of wetland rice. In T. aman season eight treatments combinations were: T1= Control, T2= Agro-Sar Organic (ASO) @ 750 kg ha-1, T3= Soil Test Based (STB), T4= T2+50% STB, T5= T2 + 60% STB, T6= T2 + 70% STB, T7= T2 + 80% STB and T8= T2 + T3. BRRI dhan31 was used as test crop. In Boro season ten treatments combinations were: T1= Fertilizer Recommendation Guide 2005 dose: NPKSZn @ 123, 26, 60, 13 and 4 kg ha-1, T2= Agro meal plus @ 300 kg ha-1, T3= T2 + NPKS @ 74, 16, 60 and 8 kg ha-1, T4= ASO @ 740 kg ha-1, T5= T4 + NP KS @ 74, 16, 60 and 8 kg ha-1, T6= Agro-Sar (ASOC) @ 740 kg ha-1, T7= T6 + NPKS @ 74, 18, 36 and 8, T8= Raj Jaibo Sar @ 790 kg ha-1, T9 = T8 + NPKS @ 74, 20, 54 and 9 kg ha-1, and T10= Control (No fertilizer). BRRI dhan29 was used as test crop. The experiments were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with 3 replications. In T. aman season maximum grain yield (3.87 t ha-1) was recorded in treatment T7 (ASO @ 750 kg ha-1 + 80% STB). In Boro season highest grain yield (7.41 t ha-1) was obtained in treatment T5 (ASO @ 740 kg ha-1 + NPKS @ 74, 16, 60 and 8 kg ha-1). The organic fertilizer ASO @ 750 kg ha-1 in combination with 50% reduced rate of chemical fertilizer on STB at T. Aman season and ASO @ 740 kg ha-1 in combination with 50% reduced rate of chemical fertilizer on FRG’05 dose at Boro season produced substantially higher yield.
Keywords: AGRO-SAR, Raj jaibo sar, wetland rice, growth, yield
A Akter, M A Islam, M R Amin, M Kamruzzaman and M M Islam
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2014, Volume 1, Number 2; Pages: 169-174
The main focus of the study was to assess the attitude of rural women towards homestead vegetable cultivation for livelihood improvement and to explore the relationship between the selected characteristics of the rural women with homestead vegetable cultivation. Data were collected from a sample of hundred (100) women of two villages of South Surma upazila of Sylhet district. The attitude of rural women was determined for 7 items under the vegetable cultivation of homestead. A comparative attitude index was computed for seven statements under vegetable cultivation by using attitude scale. Co-efficient of correlation (r) was computed to test the relationships between the dependent and independent variables. Results showed that highest percent (75%) of the rural women had shown moderate favorable attitude in vegetable cultivation for improving their livelihoods. Computed (r) values indicates that education, farm size, family income, agricultural knowledge, credit availability and communication exposure of the rural women had positive relationship with their attitude towards homestead vegetable cultivation for livelihood improvement. However, age, family size, aspiration and fatalism of the rural women had no significant relationship with their attitude towards vegetable cultivation.
Keywords: Attitude, rural women, homestead vegetable cultivation, livelihood improvement
M K Hasan, M A Rahman, A S M Mahbub, S A Belal and T Ahmed
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2014, Volume 1, Number 2; Pages: 161-167
This study was conducted to compare the performance of crossbred cow likely L×F (50% L and 50% F), L×H×F×F×L×F (68.75% F, 28.125% L and 3.125% H), L×F×F (75% F and 25% L), L×F×L×F×F (81.25% F and 18.75% L), L×SL (50% L and 50% SL), L×SL×SL (75% SL and 25% L), L×SL×F (50% F, 25% L and 25% SL), L×S (50% L and 50% S) and L×Rc (50% L and 50% Rc). A total of 240 crossbred cows were selected from five upazilas of Comilla district. It was observed that mean milk yield per day for L×F, L×H×F×F×L×F, L×F×F, L×F×L×F×F, L×SL, L×SL×SL, L×SL×F, L×S and L×Rc crossbreds cattle were 6.03±0.5, 7.3±0.6, 9±0.5, 10±0.5, 4.51±1.06, 5±1.06, 4.16±0.81, 4±0.5 and 3±0.5 litre, respectively. The lactation length of L×F, L×H×F×F×L×F, L×F×F, L×F×L×F×F, L×SL, L×SL×SL, L×SL×F, L×S and L×Rc crossbreds cattle were 285±5, 285±5, 285±5, 285±5, 251±5, 253±5, 259±5, 248±5 and 220±5 days, respectively. About the reproductive performances L×F, L×SL and L×SL×SL cross breed cattle need minimum (1.61±0.61) services per conception and LxS crossbred cattle need maximum (1.78±0.63) services per conception. Gestation length was shorter (277±3.31 days) in case of L×Rc cross and highest (279.7±4.2 days) in case of L×SL×SL crossbred cattle. The highest calving interval was 447±20 days and found in L×S crossbred cattle and the lowest calving interval was 430±20 days and observed in L×F, L×H×F×F×L×F, L×F×F and L×F×L×F×F crossbred cattle. Calving interval was lower (430±20 days) in L×F, L×H×F×F×L×F, L×F×F and L×F×L×F×F crosses and higher (447±20 days) in L×S crossbred cattle. Age at puberty was shorter in L×SL×F cross 26.2±2.4 months and longer in L×SL×SL cross 29.3±2.3 months. Based on the results obtained from current study, it can be concluded that the L×F (50% L and 50% F) crossbred cattle is more suitable under climatic and socio-economic condition of Comilla district in Bangladesh.
Keywords: Crossbred cattle, productive performance, reproductive performance
M T Islam, N Z Shoshe, M T Islam, M M R Howlader and M S Islam
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2014, Volume 1, Number 2; Pages: 155-159
The study was carried out to investigate productive and reproductive performances of crossbreds and indigenous dairy cows. A total of 200 dairy cows belonging to 10 farms of Sylhet district were selected randomly of which 50 cows were Holstein Friesian cross, 50 cows were Sahiwal cross, 50 cows were Sindhi cross and 50 were indigenous breed. The highest average milk yields day -1 cow -1 and total lactation yield cow -1 was observed in Holstein Friesian cross (9.82±2.92; 2899.13±1280.52 liter) followed by Sahiwal cross (6.13±2.85, 1773.60±1107.68 liter), Sindhi cross (4.35±1.12; 1127.24±342.32 liter) and indigenous cows (2.41±0.72; 541.42±144.71 liter). The lactation period (days) of crossbreds dairy cows was significantly (p<0.01) higher than native indigenous cows. The postpartum heat period and calving to first service were highest in Sindhi cross and indigenous cows. The age at first calving (months) was almost similar in different crossbred cows but significantly (p<0.01) higher in indigenous cows. Considering all the parameters studied, Holstein Friesian cross showed better performance followed by Sahiwal cross, Sindhi cross and indigenous cows.
Keywords: Crossbreds, dairy cows, indigenous, productive and reproductive performance
G N Adhikary, S K Chowdhury, S Sarkar, B Paul, K M Islam and M N Islam
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2014, Volume 1, Number 2; Pages: 147-153
The experiment was conducted to elucidate the histomorphology of thyroid gland of prepubertal, pubertal and castrated adult indigenous bulls (Bos indicus) using Hematoxyline and Eosin (H&E) during July 2013 to June 2014. Twelve bulls of three age groups namely prepubertal (below 1 year of age, n=4), pubertal (1.5 to 2.5 years, n=4) and castrated adult (above 4 years, n=4) were selected in this study. Thyroid glands of slaughtered bulls were collected for histological studies. The thyroid gland was found to cover by a thick connective tissue capsule consisted of dense collagen fibers having two layers, outer and inner layer. The follicles consisted of follicular epithelium and intrafollicular colloid substances. Shapes of the follicles were seen round, oval, pentagonal or hexagonal and irregular in appearance. In prepubertal group, most of the follicles were smaller. In pubertal group, most of the follicles were larger in sizes including some smaller follicles. Significant differences were found in the follicular diameters of the prepubertal from the pubertal bulls. Castrated bulls showed larger inactive follicles with few smaller follicles. Colloid was more homogenous, predominantly eosinophilic by H&E staining in most active follicles. Follicular epithelium become simple squamous to low cuboidal in prepubertal bulls, low cuboidal to columnar in pubertal bulls and squamous epithelium in castrated adult bulls. Para follicular cells were frequently found beneath the basal lamina in prepubertal bulls, but in pubertal and castrated bulls a fewer or no parafollicular cells were found. Finally, thyroid glands were found to undergo age related changes and histological features indicated the functional status of the thyroid gland.
Keywords: Histology, pubertal stage, thyroid gland, indigenous bull
M A U Doullah, H Tomita, M Shimizu, S Matsumoto, R Fujimoto and K Okazaki
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2014, Volume 1, Number 2; Pages: 139-146
Clubroot disease (Plasmodiophora brassicae) is one of the most damaging diseases of vegetable Brassica in the world. Different research groups from various countries of the world have identified eight clubroot resistance (CR) loci; Crr1, Crr2, Crr3, Crr4, CRa, CRb, CRc and CRk in Brassica rapa and twenty seven genetic loci encoding CR in B. oleracea by Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) analysis till now. Some CR loci are located in the near position of the same chromosome and others are distributed in different chromosomes. The current status of knowledge of clubroot resistance genes considering the future prospects for the development of CR resistant cultivars only are reviewed. The article provides relevant reviews on the clubroot resistant genes and their accumulation through Marker-assisted selection (MAS) in both B. oleracea and B. rapa.
Keywords: Brassica crops, clubroot disease, Plasmodiophora brassicae, resistance gene, MAS