MR Al Mamun*, SJ Lovely and S Akther
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2018, Volume 5, Number 2; Pages: 213-222
The world races toward its urban future, waste generation of urban lifestyle which producing the faster rate of urbanization, made an adverse effect on the environment. Nowadays solid waste management pattern is an alarming issue in Sylhet city area of 26.50 km sq. with a population of 1 million. This paper mainly focused on the observation of existing scenarios of solid waste management practices in Sylhet city and also establishing of a feasible solid waste management system for Sylhet city. During this study, information were taken from direct field observation from different areas of Sylhet city and other sources. The results showed that solid waste generation had reached to about 260 tons day-1 in Sylhet city in 2017 which is 2.5 times higher than 2004. The solid waste was collected 52% of a door to door system was running, 22% use of community bin for waste disposal and rests dumps open places. From the investigation found that maximum people thought because of improper removal of waste and illegal dumps on open places are two considerable reasons for environmental pollution. The study is bringing some challenges for progressing of solid waste management. Some causes found for inability to the management of urban solid waste consists of inadequate financing, lack of community participation and lack of implementation of proper laws. In this regard, the integrated systems with a combination of given challenges might be helpful to build up a green city of Sylhet City Corporation.
Keywords: Waste segregation, recycling, sustainable environment, environment pollution
NAB Bhuiyan, M Kunda*, MA Islam and AHA Rashid
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2018, Volume 5, Number 2; Pages: 203-211
This study was conducted to investigate the livelihood status of fishermen of the Sari-Gowain River at Jaintiapur upazila under Sylhet district, Bangladesh. Randomly selected sixty fishermen from four villages were interviewed by using a structural questionnaire based on focused group discussion during December 2017 to May 2018. It is revealed that most of the fishermen (48.25%) were of middle age group (31 to 50 years). Among the respondents, around 78.5% fishermen were Muslim, and rests were Hindu. Around 71.5% respondents had nuclear family and 28.5% had joint family. Their family size ranged from 3-12 members; 10% fishermen had small family with 3-4 members, 60% had medium family with 5-7 family members, and rest 30% had large family with 8-12 family members. About 25.5% of the sampled fishermen received no education, 58.25% could sign only, 10.5% of the fishermen had education up to primary level, and 5.75% of the fishermen had education up to secondary level. Fishing is identified as the main income source for a large amount of fishers (41.5%) whereas 38.5% of the fishermen were involved in agricultural activities, 37.75% were involved in labor, and 23.25% were involved in boating as secondary occupation. About 70.5% of the fishers had access to drinking water from tube-wells and 29.5% used neighbours’ tubewells. Of the sampled fishermen 45.5% used earthen latrine, 4.25% used semi-cemented latrine, and 50.25% used open field for toilet purpose. Most of the fishers (45.25%) were found to live in houses in corrugated tin roof and bamboo wall houses. Among the fishermen 61.25% borrowed money from non-government organizations (NGOs), 30.5% from relatives, and 8.25% were economically self-sufficient. About 69% of the fishermen were dependent on village doctor and Kabiraj for treatment, 21.5% on upazila health complex, and 9.5% on MBBS doctor for health facilities. All of these findings indicate the poor socio-economic conditions which might have negative impact on their livelihoods, and thereby should be improved in order to make positive impact on the fisheries biodiversity of the river.
Keywords: Social status, fisherman, livelihood, biodiversity
MS Islam and A Hossain
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2018, Volume 5, Number 2; Pages: 195-202
Probiotics effect with dietary supplemental feed on growth and yield of male tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in floating cages placed at Dekar haor of Sunamganj for 120 days was assessed. Four treatments viz T1 (Safegut), T2 (Biogen), T3 (Super biotic) and T4 (control) each with three replicates were used in the experiment. Tilapia were stocked in cages at a density of 40 no. m-3 with the average initial weight of 14.23-16.44 g and they were fed with commercial floating feed at a decreasing rate of 10-5% of total biomass thrice daily. Feed was supplemented mixed with probiotics at a rate of 0.5 g kg-1. Higher growth (289.56±14.14g), survival rate (96.91%), yield (10.67±1.7 kg m-3), net profit (BDT 845.25±86.8 m-3) and lower food conversion ratio (1.13) were obtained in T1 than those of other treatments, which were 4-5 times higher than the earthen pond production of tilapia in Bangladesh. The lowest growth, survival, production and higher FCR were found in control treatment where no probiotics was supplied. Therefore, results of the study suggest that probiotics may be applied to supplementary feed to boost up fish production.
Keywords: Socioeconomic characteristics, production cost, return, factors, problems
MM Rahman, MMM Alam, SMI Khalil and TA Sumon
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2018, Volume 5, Number 2; Pages: 189-194
This study was carried out to assess the fish diseases in different aquaculture farms of north-eastern Bangladesh. Data were collected through questionnaire interview, personal contact and participatory rural appraisals as focus group discussion with different stakeholders. Forty informants from 15 selected aqua farms were interviewed. All interviewees had faced disease problems in their farms. Prevalence of fish diseases varied among districts and farms. Based on the study, total seven diseases were observed in different fish farms. The most prevalent disease in north-eastern Bangladesh was environmental problems (100%) followed by argulosis and dropsy (68%), fin and tail rot (45%), streptococcosis (28%), epizootic ulcerative syndrome (23%) and nutritional diseases (15%). Environmental problems were common in all farms because of high stocking densities, overfeeding, water bodies surrounded with trees and shrubs on the dike and lack of water exchange facility. The highest disease prevalence was found in Sunamganj (32%) followed by Sylhet (24%), Habiganj (23%) and Maulvibazar (21%). The farmers have inadequate knowledge about fish disease. This study also unveiled some fish health management related problems in aquaculture such as lack of assistance from concerned GOs and NGOs officials and poor technical knowledge of private farm owners, lack of technical manpower and lack of suitable therapeutics with proper uses. The information of the study will be helpful for proper management of fish diseases occurred in the north-eastern region of Bangladesh.
Keywords: Fish health management, disease prevalence, parasitic, bacterial and fungal disease
ZA Riyadh*, MA Rahman, SR Saha and MI Hossain
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2018, Volume 5, Number 2; Pages: 173-179
A field experiment was conducted during April 2017 to April 2018 at the jackfruit orchard in Madhupur tract of Shibpur, Narsingdi. To observe the soil physical conditions and to determine the changes in soil chemical properties aroid (Colocasia esculenta), ginger (Zingiber officinale), turmeric (Curcuma longa) and chilli (Capsicum annuum) were grown with jackfruit tree (Artocarpus heterophyllus). The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The results revealed that soil temperature was reduced by 3.37-9.25% in different crop associated agroforestry systems (AFs) than open seasonal crop field, while soil moisture was found to be increased by 10-20%. In general, all studied parameters of soil chemical properties both in agroforestry and non-agroforestry fields increased after experimentation from their respective initial fields. Soil pH was raised by 1.5-8.84% in Jackfruit based AFs than open field after experimentation. As compared to open crop field after study, total nitrogen of the soil was promoted by 9-19% in seasonal crop associated AFs. Jackfruit based agroforestry with different seasonal crops increased soil organic carbon (SOC) by 3-10% compared to open field after study. Results also revealed that soil organic matter (SOM) were increased by 3.35-8.62% in AFs fields after experimentation than open field and by 3.36-19.39% than AFs fields before study.
Keywords: Open field, Soil temperature, Soil moisture, Total nitrogen, Soil organic matter
AP Chowdhury*, M Biswas and P Mandal
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2018, Volume 5, Number 2; Pages: 181-188
Nitrogen (N) and zinc (Zn) are two important essential plant nutrients, which have profound effect on growth, development, plant nutritional status and seed quality. The present study was conducted to observe the effects of N and Zn fertilization on N and Zn contents in seed and straw and seed quality parameters of BARI Gom-28. The study was carried out at the Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS) in Jamalpur during December 2015 to April 2016. The experiment was replicated three times in a split plot design with four nitrogen levels (main plots) viz. (i) NF0 = control, (ii) NF1= 140, (iii) NF2= 160 and (iv) NF3= 180 kg ha-1 and five zinc levels (sub-plots) viz. (i) ZF0= Control, (ii) ZF1 = 2, (iii) ZF2 = 4, (iv) ZF3 = 6, and (v) ZF4 = 8 kg ha-1. The results revealed that N content of both grain and straw were the maximum (15.78% and 4.26%, respectively) in NF2while the highest contents of Zn were 306.58 and 122.58 ppm in ZF3. Interaction of N and Zn levels showed the highest N content of both grain and straw were 3.50% and 1.14%, respectively, with the combination of NF2ZF3. Similarly, the highest Zn content of grain and straw were 86.70 ppm and 32.76 ppm, respectively found in NF2ZF3. Seed quality study showed the highest germination percentage, vigor index, longest shoot, longest root, longest seedling and the highest dry weight of seedling in the interaction NF2ZF3. Thus, N and Zn fertilization @ 160 and 6 kg ha-1 produced correspondingly more N and Zn contents in the straw and seed and also improved seed quality of late sown wheat.
Keywords: Nitrogen, zinc, seed quality, wheat
AU Khan, MAR Choudhury*, MS Islam and MA Maleque1
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2018, Volume 5, Number 2; Pages: 167-172
A field study was conducted to assess the population abundance and fluctuation pattern of major insect pests of country bean under natural condition. The research was done in the farm field of the Department of Entomology, Sylhet Agricultural University, during summer and winter seasons of 2017-2018. Five insect species were found, among them aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch), pod borer (Maruca testulalis G.) and epilachna beetle (Epilachna dodecastigma) were recorded in both seasons and shoot borer (Acrobasis caryae) and field cricket (Brachytrypes portentosus) were found in winter and summer season, respectively. The highest number of accumulated populations of aphid was 408.74 and 205.89, pod borer was 249.99 and 95.45 and epilacha beetle was 57.69 and 43.5 plot-1 in winter and summer season, respectively. The relative abundances of aphid were 55.58% and 59.24%; Pod borer was 33.92% and 27.46; Epilachna beetle was 7.76% and 12.42% in winter and summer country bean field, respectively. The major insect pest of bean aphid incidence varied among the vegetative, flowering and fruiting stages which were 120 and 85, 150 and 74 and 135 and 65 in winter and summer country bean plot-1, respectively. Conversely, other major pest of country bean was pod borer mainly infesting flowering and fruiting stages and number was varied 15 and 13 and 235 and 85 in winter and summer, respectively plot -1. Aphid and pod borer were found as major pests and field cricket, epilachna beetle and shoot borer were found as minor pest in country bean agroecosystem.
Keywords: Lablab purpureus, insect pest, natural conditions.21
S Sinha, MA Maleque*, MAR Choudhury and UHS Khan
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2018, Volume 5, Number 2; Pages: 159-165
The study was conducted in the Entomology Research Field of Sylhet Agricultural University (SAU) campus, Sylhet and in the farmer’s field of Sreemangal, Moulvibazarduring October 2017 to April 2018 to determine the abundance and diversity of beneficial and harmful arthropod communities in bell pepper. In SAU campus, 822 beneficial arthropods of 9 insect species (ladybird beetle, ground beetle, ant, damselfly, preying mantid, long legged fly, hoverfly, ichneumonid wasp, braconid wasp) and 3 spider species (lynx spider, wolf spider and jumping spider) and 715 harmful arthropods of 6 insect species (aphid, jassid, common cutworm, thrips, flea beetle, sting bugs) and 2 mite species (broad mite and white mite) were found. In Sreemangal, 616 beneficial arthropods of 7 insect species (ladybird beetle, ground beetle, damselfly, ant, hoverfly, ichneumonid wasp, braconid wasp) and 2 spider species (lynx spider, wolf spider) and 740 harmful arthropods of 10 insect species (aphid, jassid, common cutworm, thrips, European corn borer, flea beetle, pepper weevil, leafminer, sting bug, whitefly) and 3 mite species (white mite, two spotted spider mite, broad mite) were found. Higher diversity index and richness of beneficial arthropods was found in SAU campus whereas, higher diversity index and richness of harmful arthropods was found in Sreemangal. The results clearly indicated that bell pepper habitat of research station is more suitable than those of farmer’s field.
Keywords: Capsicum, ecosystem, insect, spider, mite
JR Roy, MA Maleque*, MF Mondal and UHS Khan
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2018, Volume 5, Number 2; Pages: 151-157
The study was conducted at the Research Field of Entomology Department, Sylhet Agricultural University (SAU) campus and farmer’s field at Sreemangal, Moulvibazar during October 2017 to April 2018 to find out the effectiveness of net barrier in protecting major insect and mite pests of bell pepper. Four treatments viz., plot with coarse net (40-mesh mosquito net) + polyethylene (T1), plot with fine net (120-mesh nylon net) + polyethylene (T2), plot with polyethylene (T3) and control plot (T4) were used. The experiments were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with five replications. In two sites, chili aphid (Aphis gossypii Glov.), jassid (Amrasca biguttula Ishida), common cutworm (Spodoptera litura Fab.) and white mite (Tetranychus sp.) were found as the major pests. Irrespective study sites, coarse net and fine net reduced 73 to 80% chili aphid, 51 to 74% jassid and 71 to 81% white mite. The treatments had no impact on reducing common cutworm. In both sites, highest fruit yields were obtained from fine net and polyethylene plot in SAU (12.74 t ha-1) and also in Sreemangal (10.48 t ha-1). The fine net plot gave higher Marginal Benefit Cost Ratio (MBCR) in SAU campus (MBCR = 7.56 : 1) and Sreemangal (MBCR = 4.9 : 1). The results indicated that fine net use in bell pepper plot is effective in controlling insect and mite pests, producing higher fruit yield and profits.
Keywords: Capsicum, sweet pepper, insect, mite, poly-tunnel
MAR Choudhury*, MM Rahman, MZ Alam and MM Hossain
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2018, Volume 5, Number 2; Pages: 145-150
The study was conducted to assess the efficacy of some promising pest management tools against Brinjal Shoot and Fruit Borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee) under field conditions during summer (February-August 2015). The tested tools were Rambo10 EC (Cypermethrin) @ 1ml L-1, Rekhaphos 20 EC (Chlorpyriphos) @ 2 ml L-1, Kinalux 25 EC (Quinalphos) @ 3 ml L-1, Suntec1.8 EC (Abamectin) @ 0.5 ml L-1 and Neem seed kernel extract (NSKE) @ 50 g L-1 of water and including coriander as barrier crop (cultural practice) and clipping off infested shoot and fruit (mechanical control) and an untreated control. The shoot infestation varied from 4.28% -12.65%. The lowest shoot infestation was recorded in Rambo10 EC treated plot (4.28%) which followed by Kinalux 25 EC (5.18%) and Neem seed kernel extracts (5.27%). The highest number of healthy (308.29) and the lowest number of infested (78.31) fruits plot-1 were harvested from Rambo10 EC treated plot and it increased and decreased the healthy and infested fruit over control 79.24% and 51.66%, respectively. Similarly, the highest healthy (21.58 kg) and the lowest infested (5.09 kg) fruit weight plot-1 was recorded from Rambo10 EC treated plot which increased and decreased the healthy and infested fruit weight over control 87.33% and 47.63%, respectively. The fruit yield ranged from 23.60 – 29.63 t ha-1. The yield increase over control was recorded in Rambo 10 EC, Kinalux 25 EC, Rekhaphos 20 EC, Suntec1.8 EC, Neem seed kernel extract, Coriander and mechanical (Clipping off) control 25.55%, 19.32%, 16.10%, 14.96%, 12.33%, 10.89% and 2.92%, respectively.
Keywords: Efficiency, pest management tools, Leucinodes orbonalis
R Hasan, K Islam, KR Faysal, MN Islam
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2018, Volume 5, Number 2; Pages: 141-144
An experiment was conducted at the research field of the Department of Agronomy and Haor Agriculture, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet-3100 during Kharif 2 Season to find out the effect of plant spacing on the yield of mungbean varieties. The experiment was conducted considering two factors, mungbean varieties viz., BARI mung-6 (V1) and Patuakhali local (V2),plant spacing’s viz., S1= (30cm × 15cm),S2= (30cm × 10cm), S3= (30cm × 5cm). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The results showed significant variation in important yield parameters like podsplant-1, seeds pod-1 and seed yield. The interaction effect indicated that BARI mung-6 with moderate and closer spacing had the highest number of pods plant-1 (9.27 and 9.00, respectively); on the other hand the highest seeds pod-1 (12.27) was produced in Patuakhali local variety with closer spacing. The variety BARI mung-6 produced the highest seed yield of 825.32 kg ha-1 with closer plant spacing which was statistically similar in Patuakhali local variety in highest and moderate spacing but the lowest seed yield (606.1 kg ha-1) was produced in Patuakhali local variety with closer spacing. Therefore, BARI mung-6 with closer spacing (30cm × 5cm) can be recommended to cultivate mungbean during Kharif 2 season in Sylhet region.
Keywords: Mungbean, Plant spacing, Patuakhali local
N Jahan, F Begum, A Muqit* and MAU Doullah
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2018, Volume 5, Number 2; Pages: 135-140
Naga chilli (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) is one of the most important spice crops in the Sylhet region. The present investigation was conducted at different farmer’s field in the Sylhet region to assess the disease status and cultivated areas of Naga chilli. It is cultivated in Jaintiapur, Biswanath, Kamalgonj, Bahubal areas of greater Sylhet region. In the present study Jaintiapur, Biswanath and Kamalgonj areas were widely investigated. Six diseases were recorded on Naga chilli. These are leaf blight, wilt, dieback, stem rot, mosaic and leaf curl. Leaf blight and wilt were most prevalent in the field. Although large variation was found in disease incidence but severity level did not show much variation. Leaf blight showed the highest incidence (19.56%) compared to other diseases like wilt (17.71%), dieback (10%), leaf curl (3.33%), mosaic (10%) and the lowest was in stem rot (1%). In the early vegetative stage the prevalent diseases were leaf blight, wilt, mosaic, dieback, leaf curl and stem rot. In the late vegetative stage and fruiting stage leaf blight, wilt, leaf curl, dieback, mosaic diseases were mostly prevalent in the field. In Jaintiapur field the prevalent diseases were leaf blight, dieback, wilt, mosaic, leaf curl and stem rot. Mosaic, dieback and leaf blight diseases were mostly prevalent in farmer’s field of Biswanath and Kamalgonj. To manage the diseases in the field farmers applied mostly Mancozeb, Sulfur fungicide, Triazole and Carbamate fungicides and sometimes they also applied micronutrient in the field to overcome diseases.
Keywords: Naga chilli, mosaic, disease incidence, disease severity, survey
AK Mondal, MM Mia, MSR Chowdhury and S Begum
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2018, Volume 5, Number 2; Pages: 127-133
The present study was conducted to evaluate the Artificial Insemination (AI) programof UpazillaLivestock Office and BRAC AI Enterprise at Sadullapur, Gaibandha, Bangladesh. The study was conducted at Sadullapurupazilla ofGaibandha district fromJuly, 2017 through June, 2018. The data were collected from the record books of Upazila Livestock Office and BRAC AI Enterprise, Sadullapur, Gaibandha. The performance of AI program was evaluated on the basis of conception rate and calving rate. Descriptive statistics were performed to estimate the conception rate and calving rate.Chi-square test was performed to check the difference of conception rate and calving rate between Upazilla Livestock office and BRAC AI Enterprise where confidence interval was 95%. The conception rate of AI program at Upazila Livestock Office was significantly higher than the BRAC AI Enterprise. The calving rate of AI program at Upazila Livestock Office andBRAC AI Enterprise were not significantly different. The Holstein Friesian (HF) is commonly used for AI program by upazilla livestock office and BRAC AI Enterprise followed by Sahiwal, Jersy and other crossbred. It was shown that the conception rate was significantly higher at Upazila Livestock Office than the BRAC AI Enterprise at Sadullapurupazilla in Gaibandha district.
Keywords: Artificial Insemination, Conception rate, Calving rate.
MM Mia, AK Mondal, MSR Chowdhury, and MM Mia
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2018, Volume 5, Number 2; Pages: 121-125
The present study was conducted to know the productive and reproductive performance of Black Bengal goats in relation to different coat colors. A total of 609 Black Bengal goats were selected from 35 private owned farms in Sylhet division during November 2017 to October 2018. Average birth weight and adult body weight gain after 12 months of white, solid black, black with Dutch belt spotting, and brown bezoar coat color goats were varied significantly. Birth weight is high in black with Dutch belt spotting coat and the adult weight gain after 12 months is high in solid black coat color. The average daily milk yield and the average lactation period of white, solid black, black with Dutch belt spotting, and brown bezoar coat color goats were varied significantly. The age at puberty varied according to the coat color. The age of first kidding of white, solid black, black with Dutch belt spotting and brown bezoar coat color goats did not vary significantly. The average gestation period in 1st parity, age at first conception and post-partum estrous of Black Bengal goat were not affected by the coat colors. Number of litter per kidding was higher in solid black i.e. the reproductive performance is better in solid black coated goats than that of other coat colors. From the present study, it may be concluded that the performances of solid black color goats were better than other coat colors in terms of adult weight of does, daily milk yield, lactation period, age at puberty, service per conception and litter size.
Keywords: Black Bengal Goat, Coat Color, Productive Performance, Reproductive Performance
MM Khan, MN Hossain, MA Baset, MN Uddin
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2018, Volume 5, Number 2; Pages: 113-119
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary organic selenium (Se) supplementation on productive and reproductive performances (egg production, body weight, egg quality and hatchability) of the Japanese Quail. A total of 72 Japanese Quails of 10 weeks age (60 laying females and 12 adult males) were randomly and equally allocated to 4 Dietary groups each with 3 replicates of 5 females and 1 male (n=18). Four dietary groups T0, T1, T2 and T3 were formulated by adding 0.0, 0.25, 2.5 and 25 ppm Se with the maize based basal diets. Results demonstrated that the hen day egg production reduced (p<0.05) at T3 group without altering the feed intake, body weight and survivability of the birds. Albumen index, Yolk index and Haugh unit were found to be higher (p<0.05) in the eggs of T1 and T3 bird groups. The fertility and hatchability were also higher (p<0.05) on T1 and T2 bird groups in compared that of T0 and T3 bird groups. Embryonic mortality were found to be significantly lower (p<0.05) on T1 and T2 groups during the whole incubation period. The weight of ovary, oviduct and number of ovarian follicles did not differ among the treatment groups, but damaged liver and cystic ovarian follicles were observed at T3 group. The present study reveals that dietary supplementation of 0.25 ppm organic Se has positive effect on the productive and reproductive performances of Japanese quail.
Keywords: Organic Selenium, Productive, Reproductive, Performance, Japanese Quail