IA Fagun1*, ST Rishan2, SJK Chowdhury1, NT Shipra2, MJ Islam1, MM Shamsuzzaman3 and AHA Rashid4
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2020, Volume 7, Number 2; Pages: 115-126
The ornamental fish trade is a nascent fisheries-oriented trade sector in Bangladesh. The country’s ornamental fish trade’s centrum is the Katabon Market in Dhaka, Bangladesh’s capital. This study portrays the overview of the ornamental fish trade, the constraints associated, and the likelihoods of this trade in Katabon. The study discovered 33 aquarium shops, and the average business experience of traders was around ten years. A total of 41 varieties of fish had been identified as available for selling, and most of them (53.66%) belong to the fish order Perciformes. Osteoglossum bicirrhosum (Silver arowana; 68000±27838.82 BDT/Pair) was tracked down as the most expensive fish, followed by Cyprinus carpio (assorted koi carp; 8200±2939.19 BDT/Pair). A general marketing channel was identified, initiated with the importers and local hatchery owners, and ended up with the end-users, aquarium keepers. The most sold species was Carassius auratus. The research analysis had identified a lack of suitable policy for the expansion of the trade, adequate knowledge on diagnosis and treatment of diseased fish, research on feeding and breeding technology, integration with other trade, skilled staffing’s involvement, and accurate quarantine procedure as the key constraints impeding the accrual of the trade.
Keywords: Aquarium, Ornamental fish, Aquatic trade
MJ Aktar1, MJ Islam1*, SK Barman2 and M Kunda1
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2020, Volume 7, Number 2; Pages: 95-114
The study investigated biodiversity, and the present status of the Teesta River fishery in Rangpur and Nilphamari district, Bangladesh, from November 2018 through October 2019. Questionnaire Interviews and Focus Group Discussions with Key Informant Interviews (KII) and a catch assessment survey were carried out in the study. A total of 45 fish species were identified under 17 families and ten olders. Fishes were categorized as commonly available (24.44%), moderately available (26.66%), less available (22.22%), and rarely available (26.66%). A total of 8 fishing gear were identified. The highest and lowest level of gear efficiency was recorded from Gill net and Dhoar (Fish trap) in May and June as 0.501 kg and 0.000209 kg, respectively. In October, all gear’s maximum average gear efficiency (1.039 kg) was recorded, and the minimum average gear efficiency (0.309 kg) was recorded in June. Shannon-Weaver diversity index (H’) was found to range from 1.11 to 2.42. Highest Margalef Species Richness (d) (3.24) was in April and the lowest (1.86) was in September. The highest Pielou’s Evenness Index (J’) (0.78) was documented in January, and the lowest (0.36) in August. The highest fish production was in April (592±65.30 kg/day), and the lowest in July (112±12.24 kg/day). Significant threats to fish biodiversity, habitat, and overall fish production of the Teesta River were identified. However, the establishment of the sanctuary, control of pollution, maintenance of fishing gear, and the implementation of the fish act is necessary for the conservation of fish biodiversity of this River.
Keywords: Fish biodiversity, abundance, CPUE, threats, Teesta River
MD Hossain*1, F Mahmud2, SR Bhuiyan2, N Zeba2 and MR Islam3
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2020, Volume 7, Number 2; Pages: 87-94
The experiment was conducted to screen some maize varieties available in Bangladesh on the basis of their reproductive characteristics. Mean data were used to statistical analyze like analysis of variance, mean, range were calculated by using MSTATC software program. Significant variations among 50 maize genotypes in terms of all the yield contributing characters were found in this study. The lowest (24) days to 50% tasselling was found from the genotype 25KSS and VA-786, while the minimum (54) days to 50% silking was observed in the genotype PAC-984. The longest (21cm) cob was observed in the genotype VA-786, and the highest (17.07cm) cob diameter was recorded in the genotype GP-838.The highest (16.61) row per cob was recorded in the genotype NZ-001, and the highest (40.40) number of grains per row was recorded in the genotype PAC-399. The highest100grain weight (383.33g), was recorded in the genotype 25KSS, while the lowest (153.3g) was observed in the genotype of Uttaran-2. Statistically, significant variation was recorded for days to maturity in different maize genotypes. The highest (116) days to maturity were found in the genotype Elite, while the lowest days to maturity (107.3) were found in the genotype BHM-3. Grain yield (t ha-1) varied significantly in maize genotypes under the study. The average grain yield was recorded at around 6.14(t ha-1), and it ranged from 2.30 to 8.17. The highest grain yield (8.17 t ha-1) was recorded in genotype BHM-9, which was followed by PAC-984 (7.90t ha-1) and Pacific-98 (7.90t ha-1). Therefore, this experiment suggests that these three hybrids– namely, BHM-9, PAC-984, and Pacific-98 have a high potential to produce more yield and are suitable for commercial cultivation in Bangladesh.
Keywords: Maize, Varieties, Screening, Variation
AC Das1*, S Das2, MM Akanda3, B Debnath1 and R Bhattacharya4
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2020, Volume 7, Number 2; Pages: 79-86
Land suitability assessment is important to identify environmental limitations that affect growth, development, and chilli production. A study on land suitability assessment of chilli for the Sylhet district of Bangladesh was performed to measure suitable lands for its higher productivity. The maps for the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) were generated from Landsat-8 satellite images. Other vector layers for soil and climate were transformed into raster datasets. Finally, ArcGIS software used a weighted overlay spatial analysis to identify and measure lands under different suitability classes. The study results showed that the lands for highly suitable, moderately suitable, marginally suitable, and not suitable categories were 15,187; 93,909; 207,908; and 3,396 hectares which accounted for 4.74, 29.31, 64.89, and 1.06 percent, respectively. The developed land suitability assessment model for chilli would be a valuable tool for scientists, agricultural extension workers, and land policymakers to take further initiatives to increase the production and sustainable management of agricultural lands in the study area.
Keywords: Land suitability, Chilli, GIS and remote sensing data
MS Hossen1, SS Tabriz1 and MS Mia2*
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2020, Volume 7, Number 1; Pages: 61-69
Stevia, a non-caloric natural sweetener, is safe for people with diabetes and has medicinal value that might receive greater focus in the future. Bangladesh Sugar crop Research Institute (BSRI) has released a variety of stevia (BSRI Stevia-1) as well as the production technology for the farmers, considering the agro-climatic condition of the country, and its commercial cultivation has started on a limited scale. Stevia is becoming popular with diabetic patients with teabag as an alternative source of sugar. It requires high yielding and stress-tolerant varieties, better agronomic management technology such as fertilization, irrigation, intercultural operation, and improved post-harvest processing technologies to increase stevia production. In Bangladesh, there has not been a stevioside extraction plant yet. The farmers have been manually producing stevia powder as their final product, which is comparatively less attractive to consumers. An established marketing channel has not been developed yet. Extensive research work, extension activity, and suitable policy regarding stevia cultivation, processing, and marketing can open the door to a golden opportunity for profitable commercial stevia cultivation in Bangladesh.
Keywords: Stevia, Stevioside, Cultivation, Processing, Management
M Rahman1*, PK Sarkar1 and Z Ferdous2
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2020, Volume 7, Number 1; Pages: 47-59
This research work was carried out in Shalla and Dharmapasa Upazila areas of Sunamganj District under Sylhet Division, where two solar-powered irrigation pumps were installed. Daily radiation and temperature were favorable for solar energy harvest. The daily average solar radiation in that place was up to 650 kWh per meter square each month. The global radiation of the solar panel used in our research and the surface temperature of the element were related to each other. On relatively shady days we find that the amount of electricity generated from solar panels is slightly less than on hot sunny days. The daylight hours were more than 12 hours. The pump was operated for irrigation work without any issues and discharge was up to the expectations. The overall efficiency of the solar-powered pump was 86% (operational).
Keywords: Solar irrigation, Sustainability, PV array, Discharge
MR Al Mamun1, K Naher1, M Rahman1, MA Hossen2 and MT Rahman1
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2020, Volume 7, Number 1; Pages: 37-45
Rice is the most important crop in the developing countries of Asia. In the south and south-east Asia, rain-fed and irrigated transplanted rice occupies nearly two-thirds of the rice-growing area and produces more than 80% of the rough rice. In these areas, prilled urea conventionally applied by farmers is very insufficient in the transplanted rice field, where severe losses occur (up to 60% of applied N) via NH3volatilization, denitrification, leaching, and runoff. Considering loss minimization, an experiment was conducted during the Boro season at Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation (BADC) in Sylhet to evaluate the performance of BRRI Prilled Urea Applicator (BPUA) at the different periods after transplanting BRRI dhan28. The results reveal that the field performance of the BPUA was suitable on first day after seedling transplanting under sandy clay loam soil compared to the third day after transplanting (DAT). At the 105 DAT, the height of the crop was found to be 104.3, 104.3, and 95.7 cm for urea deep placement by BPUA on first, second, and third day after seedling transplanting respectively. The maximum grain and straw yield was found at 6.8 t ha-1 and 5.2 t ha-1, respectively which varied with the date of applicator operation after seedling transplanting. The benefit-cost ratio was found 1.63 at first DAT, whereas it was lower on the third days after seedling transplanting. Farmer can apply urea fertilizer in the non-oxidized zone by the BPUA after the first and second day of seedling transplanting in the sandy clay loam soil for maximum yield.
Keywords: Field capacity, Fertilizer saving, Labor requirement, Benefit-cost ratio
M Rahman1*, PK Sarkar1 and Z Ferdous2
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2020, Volume 7, Number 1; Pages: 25-36
This research shows that the lion’s share of the energy used for irrigation and water management in Bangladesh is still fuel oil and non-renewable sources which are by no means environmentally friendly and expensive compared to other sources. Research shows that in the last 10 years, 500000 hectares of new uncultivated land have been included under the irrigation and water management facilities of Bangladesh. Most of which came under irrigation with the help of fuel oil-powered pumps. 5% of the total diesel demand of Bangladesh is spent on irrigation only, which can be easily replaced with a solar-powered irrigation pump. This research work was carried out in Shalla Upazila and Dharmapasa Upazila areas of Sunamganj District under Sylhet Division, where two solar-powered irrigation pumps were installed. It cost 280000 Taka to install a complete solar pump, the lion’s share of which was spent on buying PV arrays. Compared to diesel-powered pumps it has been observed that the cost of a solar-powered power pump in 20 years where 342742 Taka whereas the cost of a diesel pump 838524 taka. Which is 60% cost-effective and demand of time for farming? This will release the right amount of water to the land at the right time which can increase the yield about 10% to 20% due to loss reduction of premature grains and reduce the cost to the farmer which can play a role in improving the living standards of the farmer. Replacing the current diesel-powered pumps with solar-powered pumps can reduce carbon emissions from Bangladesh. The amount of more than 1086176.316 metric tons carbon emission in just 20 years can be reduced only by this replacement.This research shows that the lion’s share of the energy used for irrigation and water management in Bangladesh is still fuel oil and non-renewable sources, which are by no means environmentally friendly and expensive compared to other sources. Research shows that in the last 10 years, 500000 hectares of new uncultivated land have been included under the irrigation and water management facilities of Bangladesh. Most of which came under irrigation with the help of fuel oil-powered pumps. 5% of the total diesel demand of Bangladesh is spent on irrigation only, which can be easily replaced with a solar-powered irrigation pump. This research work was carried out in the Shalla Upazila and Dharmapasa Upazila areas of Sunamganj District under Sylhet Division, where two solar-powered irrigation pumps were installed. It cost 280000 Taka to install a complete solar pump, the lion’s share of which was spent on buying PV arrays. Compared to diesel-powered pumps, it has been observed that the cost of a solar-powered power pump in 20 years where 342742 Taka, whereas the cost of a diesel pump is 838524 taka, which is 60% cost-effective and demand of time for farming. This will release the right amount of water to the land at the right time, increasing the yield about 10% to 20% due to loss reduction of premature grains and reducing the cost to the farmer, which can play a role in improving living standards of the farmer. Replacing the current diesel-powered pumps with solar-powered pumps can reduce carbon emissions from Bangladesh. More than 1086176.316 metric tons of carbon emissions in just 20 years can be reduced only by this replacement.
Keywords: Solar irrigation, Cost, Carbon reduction, Yield increase, Sustainability
P Pooja1, JK Saha1*, and MA Rahman2
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2020, Volume 7, Number 1; Pages: 13-23
With the rapid advancement of mobile banking technology in our country, consumers tend to adopt this service for its potential benefits. The present study plans to determine the underlying factors that affect mobile banking adoption in rural areas. A total of 140 mobile banking users were selected from Kamalganj and Sreemangal Upazila of Moulvibazar district by employing the simple random sampling procedure. Primary data were collected from the respondents through face-to-face interviews using a structured interview schedule. Socioeconomic attributes of the respondents indicated that 67.1% of them belonged to the 30-64 age group and 86.4% of them were male, whereas only 13.6% of them were female. Most of the respondents had agriculture as their occupation. 92.2% of them were bKash users, and only 1.4% used Rocket. The remaining 6.4% of them used both bKash and Rocket in the study area. Factor analysis was applied to identify the factors influencing mobile banking adoption, and a regression model was run to observe the key factor. The study revealed that five predominant factors, namely credibility, ease of use, self-efficiency, usefulness, and social influence significantly influences rural people’s adoption of mobile banking. The extracted five factors explained 94% of the total variation of the data, and credibility was the most influential among them. Considering the findings, mobile banking service providers can take up some effective strategies for further improvement of the mobile banking sector, essentially in rural areas.
Keywords: Mobile banking, Adoption, Factor analysis, Rural area
M Salwa, MA Kashem and KS Begum
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2020, Volume 7, Number 2; Pages: 71-77
An experiment was conducted from November 2018 through April 2019 at Noagaon village of South Sunamganj Upazila in Sunamganj District to observe the effects of fertilizers on the growth and yield of boro rice varieties. Two factors experiment was conducted using three rice varieties viz. V1=BRRI dhan28, V2=BRRI dhan29 and V3=BRRI dhan58; and two fertilizers levels viz. F1= N138P22.4K63.5S13.5Zn1.3kg ha-1 (FRG-2012) and F2=N57P12K12kg ha-1 (Farmers’ practice) where Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was followed and replicated thrice. Growth and yield data were recorded. Results of the experiment showed that growth performance was higher in V1 followed by V2. The highest spikelets panicle-1 (253.23) and grains panicle-1 (162.57) were recorded from V2. F1 also gave a higher performance in no. of spikelets panicle-1 (189.81) and grains panicle-1 (132.74) over F2. The highest 1000 grains weight (22.55 g) was observed in V2 and higher (22.28 g) found in F1. The highest grain yield of 7.66 t ha-1 was produced in V2, and the lowest yield (6.08 t ha-1) was produced in V. The higher yield of 7.18 t ha-1obtained from F1 over F2(6.23 t ha-1). V2 produced the 14 % higher grain yield (8.17 t ha-1) with the application of F1 over F2. The highest BCR (1.54) was found when V2 was treated with F1, and the lowest BCR (1.19) was observed inV1with F2. In comparison to initial soil nutrients status as well as the organic matter was increased in post-harvest soil when applied balanced fertilizers.
Keywords: Variety, Haor, Balanced fertilizer, BCR, Nutrient status
D Pandit, M Kunda*, D Ray and AHA Rashid
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2020, Volume 7, Number 1; Pages: 1-12
Degradation of fish diversity in the freshwater habitats, especially the rivers of Bangladesh, has become a major concern in recent years. Therefore, this study was conducted in the Gurukchi River of Gowainghat sub-district in the Sylhet district of Bangladesh between March 2018 and February 2019 to assess the availability and biodiversity of fish species with conservation status, and population trends, and threats. Data were collected on a monthly basis by direct catch observation and field surveys as focus group discussions and personal interviews of different types of stakeholders. A total of 55 indigenous and two exotic fish species belonging to 9 orders, 22 families, and 42 genera were identified. Cypriniformes was the dominant order, comprising 40.35% of the total documented fish species, whereas Cyprinidae was found as the richest family (33.33%). A total of 10 threatened fish species (18.18%) were found in the study area where 5 species (9.09%) were endangered and five species (9.09%) were vulnerable. Notably, four globally threatened fish species such as Cirrhinus cirrhosus, Channa orientalis, Cyprinus carpio, and Wallago attu were available in the river. Among the identified native fish species, 52.73% of species showed decreasing population trends at the national level. Considering availability, the maximum fish species was rarely available (29.82%), followed by commonly available (28.07%), moderately available (22.81%), and abundantly available (19.30%). The main drivers affecting the river’s fish diversity were identified as indiscriminately overfishing, followed by dewatering fishing, dewatering for irrigation purposes, natural drought in the winter season, use of banned fishing gears, and katha fishing method. However, measures like the establishment and management of fish sanctuaries, creating alternate livelihood options for fishers, and building public awareness about fishing laws and regulations could be helpful in conserving the fish biodiversity of the Gurukchi River.
Keywords: Fish biodiversity, Availability status, Drivers, IUCN, Conservation.
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