MJ Islam1, K Begum2, MA Ashab3, S Saha2, MMH Khan4, IA Fagun1 and A Rashid5*
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2021, Volume 8, Number 2; Pages: 109-117
This study was conducted to evaluate the water quality parameters, total bacterial load, and proximate analysis of biofloc using different feeding levels in the biofloc rearing system of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The experiment was set up fiberglass tank filled with 100 liters of fresh water in four treatments (T1, T2, T3, and T4) with two replications of each treatment. The tested treatments were namely T1 (control), T2 (normal dose of feed+floc), T3 (20%feed reduction+floc), and T4 (30% feed reduction+floc). The vital water quality parameters like temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, TDS, TSS, and alkalinity were monitored at 3-day intervals. The results for temperature and pH did not show any significant differences among all the treatments. The highest DO, ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate were observed in the control treatment (7.36, 1.78, 0.13, and 11.0 mg/L, respectively). The results for nitrite and nitrate showed highly significant differences among all the treatments. The total bacterial load was estimated, and Bacillus spp was found in all biofloc treatments. Proximal analysis showed differences in crude protein, crude lipids, and ash content among all the treatments, where the highest protein percentage was 41.03%, and the highest crude lipid and ash values were 12.21% and 16%, respectively. The results indicate that Biofloc technology is a sustainable way of enhancing water quality in aquaculture through microbial biomass production, which results in higher production of tilapia.
Keywords: Water quality, Biofloc technology, Bacteriological analysis, Proximate composition
TB Hye1, MS Uddin1*, MA Kashem2, MSA Talucder1 and M Das1
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2021, Volume 8, Number 2; Pages: 99-107
This research was carried out to evaluate existing agar wounding techniques and to identify viable wounding ways for farmers and other relevant stakeholders in agar plants in order to harvest the valuable end products of agarwood and agar oil, which are used as medicine and incense. The research was conducted in Barlekha Upazila, Moulvibazar district- from August 2017 to February 2018. To conduct the survey, a pre-designed, objective-oriented questionnaire was used, and information was collected from a total of 104 agar farmers, in Barlekha Upazilla, including agar processors, agar orchard owners, and agar tree chips and oil workers by questioning them personally. The study revealed that the respondents mostly utilized two types of wounding techniques; nailing and natural insect infestation. Between these two wounding procedures, the majority of the farmers (87%) practiced the nailing, while the remaining (13%) used to gather wood from natural insect infestation. About 83% of farmers thought that agarwood obtained from natural insect attacks was more profitable than artificial wounding through nailing. The majority of respondents nail the tree when they are 11 to 15 years old. About 86% of respondents in Barlekha Upazila chopped their trees within five years of nailing them. The majority (70%) of the farmers maintained a 2.1-3.0 inch distance for vertical nail pushing, while 64% of the farmers maintained a 1.0-1.5 inch distance for horizontal nail pushing. All the respondents of Barlekha Upazila used the distillation technique for collecting agar oil. Due to the fact that there were no modern techniques to collect agar oil from the wood and atar processing, they were fully dependent on sending the oil abroad for future processing purposes.
Keywords: Wounding techniques, Nailing, Agar oil, Barlekha
M Salwa*1 and M A Kashem2
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2021, Volume 8, Number 2; Pages: 93-98
The experiments were conducted in haor area under the Sunamganj district during the period from November 2018 to March 2019 to observe the effect of planting dates on the yield of three winter vegetables. Experiment included three planting dates viz. 5 November (P1), 15 November (P2), and 25 November (P3), on three vegetables viz. Tomato, Turnip, and Squash were designed in RCBD with three replications. Yield and yield contributing data were recorded. Different planting dates had significant variations for all vegetables. The highest yield of tomato (86.42 t ha-1) was recorded on 5 November planting, and the lowest was 44.03 t ha-1 on 25 November planting. Gross return and net margin also secured the highest value in the first week of November with the highest BCR (5.38). In the case of turnip, similar trends were spotted. The highest gross yield was observed at 24.99 t ha-1 on 5 November planting, with the highest BCR (4.16). The lowest gross yield (22.77 t ha-1) was obtained on 25 November planting with decreasing BCR (3.79). Squash also gave better production on 5 November planting (61.1 t ha-1) with the highest gross return and net margin over other dates. The results revealed that the first week of November found a better time for winter vegetables (Tomato, Turnip, and Squash) cultivation in haor area after the recession of floodwater.
Keywords: Planting date, Yield, Winter vegetables, Gross return, BCR
MH Sohel1*, MD Hossain2, SA Mim3, MAR Rabbi3, MO Haque3 and MN Hasan3
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2021, Volume 8, Number 2; Pages: 81-91
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the growth, yield, and yield components of blackgram in charland area of Chapainawabganj district. The experiment comprised of seven treatments viz. T1: Control, T2: 100% RFD (Recommended Fertilizer Dose), T3: Cow dung (5 t/ha) + 100% RFD, T4: Compost (3 t/ha) + 100% RFD, T5: Vermicompost (3 t/ha) + 100% RFD, T6: 1/3 Cow Dung + 1/3 Compost + 1/3 Vermicompost + 100% RFD, and T7: Farmer’s practice. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Yield contributing characters of blackgram like number of clusters per plant, days to maturity, number of pods per plant, pod length, number of seeds per pod were significantly influenced by the different treatments. Results indicated that most yield contributing characters had the maximum values in treatment T6 (1/3 Cow Dung + 1/3 Compost + 1/3 Vermicompost + 100% RFD). The highest grain yield of 13.06 q ha-1 was observed in treatment T6, and the lowest grain yield of 9.56 q ha-1 was in T1 treatment. Application of cow dung, compost, vermicompost, and fertilizer at recommended dose had a significant and positive effect on the growth and yield of blackgram. Among the treatments, the application of cow dung, compost, vermicompost with chemical fertilizers was found to be the most effective practice for blackgram cultivation in charland area of Chapainawabganj district.
Keywords: Blackgram, Compost, Vermicompost, Inorganic fertilizer, Sustainable production.
MD Hossain1*, F Mahmud2, SR Bhuiyan2, N Zeba2 and MR Islam3
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2021, Volume 8, Number 2; Pages: 73-79
The experiment was conducted to screen the suitable maize hybrids available in Bangladesh on the basis of their vegetative characteristics. The mean and range were calculated by using MSTATC software program. Highly significant variations among 50 maize genotypes understudied. The range of cob height was recorded from 53 to 90 cm with a mean value of 74.29 cm. The highest cob height (90 cm) was recorded in genotype BM-5, and the lowest cob height (53 cm) was observed in the genotype PAC-999. Plant height varied significantly in different maize genotypes. It ranged from 156.67 cm to 298.90 cm, with a mean value of 210.34 cm. The lowest (156.67 cm) plant height was recorded in genotype Badsha, and the highest (238.90 cm) plant height was observed in genotype NZ-510. The average number of leaves per plant was recorded at 12.82, and it ranged from 10.53 to 14.63. The maximum (14.63) number of leaves per plant was recorded in the genotype BHM-6, and the minimum (10.53) number of leaves per plant was observed in maize genotype PAC-999. The average leaf length was recorded at 87.04, and it ranged from 65.33 to 102.10. The longest (102.10) leaf length was found in genotype BM-5, and the shortest (65.33) leaf length was observed in genotype Badsha. The average leaf breadth was recorded at around 8.81, and it ranged from 5.80 cm to 10.37 cm. The broadest (10.37 cm) leaf was recorded in genotype NZ-003, and the narrowest (5.80 cm) leaf was observed in the genotype of Badsha, which was followed by Kbd-222 (7.56 cm). The lowest plant height (156.67 cm) was recorded in genotype Badsha, and the maximum number of the leaf (14.63) per plant was recorded in the genotype BHM-6; these two hybrids can be cultivated as a commercial variety.
Keywords: Maize, Genotype, Vegetative characteristics, Variation
NS Sani1, SSU Ahmed2, S Akter2, MI Ahsan2*
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2021, Volume 8, Number 2; Pages: 65-71
Sunamganj is a prospective area for layer farming where many smallholders are involved in layer production. We hypothesized that these layer smallholders’ adoption levels of biosecurity varied significantly. Therefore, we designed a cross-sectional survey to know the adoption level of biosecurity practices by small-scale layer farmers in the Sunamganj district. We collected data through face-to-face interviews of randomly selected 45 layer farmers from the study area using a questionnaire containing 48 biosecurity-related questions. From the data, we calculated the biosecurity adoption index (AI), a simple scoring system to determine the adoption level of biosecurity by the smallholders. We categorized smallholders as low, partial, and high adopters based on the AI value. A two-sample t-test and one-way ANOVA measured variations in the mean AI value between levels of demographic factors to identify key predictors. The study revealed that only 17.78% (8/45) of the smallholders were high adopters, while 57.76% (26/45) were partial adopters, and the rest, 24.44% (11/45) were low adopters. The overall mean AI value was 58.75±21.26 in the survey. Farming experience, family members in the farming, presence of labour, income, and holding type were significant (p<0.05) key predictors that influenced the AI. This study underlines the scenario of adopting biosecurity practices and their plausible drivers. Results of the present study could assist respective authorities in taking evidence-based necessary steps to improve biosecurity practices in the future.
Keywords: Adoption of biosecurity measures, Layer smallholders, Sunamganj, Bangladesh
M Rahman1*, SP Ritu2 and Z Ferdous3
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2021, Volume 8, Number 1; Pages: 53-63
This research shows how the renowned Cement producing industry could cause minor environmental manipulation all around the factory area although they might partially use both agricultural and unproductive land. The land quality around the factory is not appreciable for farming in an extended way. The nutrients could be restored in the long term process, but it will cause a lot of cash which is not feasible for poor farmers. So for rehabilitation of this area, after collecting clay in a bi-yearly rotation system, the factory authority may deliver the inputs to the corresponding farmers for aquaculture and help to improve single crop growing lands by delivering natural green manure. A brief and specific sustainable clay collection plan and criteria for selecting land and subsequent activity describes in this study. This plan should be followed for ensuring long-term sustainable clay supply within minimum environmental cost.
Keywords: Sustainability, Clay mineral, Nutrient, Yield, Farm friendly Industrialization
AAN Talukder 1, S Haque 2, SA Maruf 1 and JU Ahmed 1*
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2021, Volume 8, Number 1; Pages: 39-51
This research work was conducted to assess the livelihood status of the Khasia tribe and their perception of the impact of the social safety net programs (SSNPs) on their livelihood assets. A total of 120 respondents were interviewed using a structured questionnaire from Gowainghat and Jaintiapur of Sylhet District. Both primary and secondary data were used for the study. Descriptive statistics and a sustainable livelihood framework, ‘Asset pentagon’ were used for data analysis. The household-level livelihood assessment reveals that the annual average income of the agricultural household (Tk.106346.67) was higher than the average annual non-agricultural household income (Tk.79250.98). Again, the average annual expenditure of the agricultural household (Tk.96039.44) was higher than non-agricultural household (Tk.55921.04). However, the savings of non-agricultural households (Tk.23329.94) were higher than agricultural households (Tk.10307.67). In analyzing the livelihood pattern using different asset categories, the study reveals that SSNPs had significantly improved educational facility (77.5%), medical facility (50.8%), social group participation (56.7%), self-managerial ability (59.2%), social accessibility (52.5%), cash in hand (41.7%), and cash in the bank (46.7%) in the study area. The study recommends SSNPs such as vulnerable group feeding (VGF), vulnerable group development (VGD), widow allowances, and disability allowances for more effective support. These findings will be supportive of improving the livelihood condition of the Khasia tribe as well as other indigenous communities and disadvantaged groups of Bangladesh.
Keywords: Livelihood, Khasia tribe, Social Safety Net Programs (SSNPs), Sustainable livelihood framework.
MR Karim, MJ Islam*, M Kunda, and AHA Rashid
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2021, Volume 8, Number 1; Pages: 29-38
This research aimed to assess the fish biodiversity and present status of the Dholai river in Companigonj Upazila under Sylhet district. A semi-structured questionnaire survey was used to gather the relevant information from 64 fishers from November 2019 to April 2020. This research identified 56 fish species under 21 families and ten orders. The most dominant order was Cypriniformes 32.14%, following Siluriformes 28.57%, Perciformes 14.28%, Channiformes 7.14%, Synbranchiformes 5.36%. The species availability status was observed in four categories and achieved as 17 species of commonly available (30.36%), 14 species of moderately available (25%), 17 species of less available (30.36%), and eight species of fishes were rarely found available (14.28%). A total number of five nets, one trap, one hook, and a line were recorded. The peak amount of mean Catch per Unit effort (CPUE) in the current jal was 3.67±1.50 kg/day, and the lowest was in borshi at 0.09±0.01kg/day. The highest diversity index value was 2.55 in January, and the lowest was 1.21 in April, with a mean value of 1.98±0.05. The peak richness index value was 2.76 in January, and the lowest was 1.79 in April, with a mean value of 2.36±0.1. The peak evenness value was 0.73 in January, and the lowest value was 0.41 in April, with the mean evenness value 0.61±0.05. The peck amount of fish production was in January as 478±70 kg/day, and less value was in March at 109±12 kg/day. The local fishermen identified several threats to fish biodiversity, fish habitat, and fish production of the Dholai river. The establishment of the fish sanctuary, control of river pollution, minimizing exploitation of sand and rock, conservation of angling gears ever, and maintaining fisheries rules and regulations will be effective for the conservation of fish biodiversity of the Dholai River.
Keywords: Fish biodiversity, Assessment, Dholai river, Bangladesh
PK Das1, MAM Miah2, MA Islam1* and B Deb1
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2021, Volume 8, Number 1; Pages: 21-28
The focus of the study was to determine the extent of problems perceived by fish farmers in using modern fish production technology. Data were collected from randomly selected 40 farmers of eight villages of Rajanagar union under Derai Upazila, Sunamganj district using a pre-tested interview schedule from 4 September to 20 September, 2020. Through FGD with the fish farmers, 10 problems were identified. A 4-point rating scale was used to ascertain the severity of each problem, where “3” indicated a “very severe problem”, “2” for “severe”, “1” for “less severe” and “0” for “not at all severe problem”. Results revealed that the overwhelming majority (85%) of the fish farmers had medium to a high problems with adopting modern fish production technologies, while only 15% had low problems. The major perceived problems were the high price of fish feed, lack of supply of quality fish feed, lack of a system for ensuring a reasonable price of fish at the local market, lack of proper understanding of the use of modern fish production technology, and lack of sufficient capital for fish farming for which only 24% of fish farmers adopted ‘Thai Pungus culture’ followed by 17% Thai koi culture, 15% Pabda culture, 14% Tengra culture and 10% Carp culture- despite having all potentials to be adopted by farmers. Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient (r) showed that education, farm size, extension media contact, and knowledge of farmers had a significant negative relationship with their perceived problem in using modern fish production technology.
Keywords: Fish farmer, Modern fish production technology, Problems, Haor
MS Alam1, FI Ivy2, MS Islam3, MM Rob3 and AC Das3 *
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2021, Volume 8, Number 1; Pages: 11-20
An experiment was carried out in the Sylhet region of Bangladesh to identify seed yield potentials of four lablab bean genotypes – namely, SB010, SB003, BP003, and IPSA Sheem-2 are grown in the winter season. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The genotypes differed in various morphological and seed yield attributes. Among the genotypes, the highest number of dry pods per plant was recorded in SB010 (155.50) followed by IPSA Sheem-2 (91.30), whereas the lowest was observed in SB003 (68.30). The number of dry seeds/pod was almost similar among the genotypes, ranging from 4.93 (IPSA Sheem-2) to 4.73 (SB010). The highest seed yield was recorded from the genotype SB010 (1.75 t/ha) followed by BP003 (0.90 t/ha), while it was the lowest for the genotype of SB003 (0.52 t/ha). Therefore, the genotype SB010 would be recommended further for the regional seed yield trial.
Keywords: Seed yield, Lablab bean, Winter season
AC Das1*, S Das2, R Bhattacharya3 and MM Rob1
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2021, Volume 8, Number 1; Pages: 7-10
Multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) process is important for sustainable land resource planning and management. Among different MCDM techniques, the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is popular for its simplicity in use as well as it offers complex unbiased decisions. A GIS (Geographical Information System)-based AHP is essential for land-use suitability analysis. The AHP is a trusted decision-making method proved with a mathematical formula that has multi-purpose utilities. It provides an opportunity to select important alternatives among numerous factors along with proper ranking. It also maintains consistency among the factors using the sensitivity analysis. The limitations of the AHP are that the expert’s opinion may vary for the time being, and it always follows straight models. Nevertheless, the AHP could be used by scientists, land-use planners, and land policymakers for suitable land selection with a view to sustainable land management.
Keywords: Analytical hierarchy process, Land suitability assessment
B Deb, MA Islam* and M Kamruzzaman
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2021, Volume 8, Number 1; Pages: 1-6
The focus of the study was to determine the knowledge of the farmers about modern techniques of pineapple (Ananas comosus) production in hilly areas. For doing so, 13 questions were constructed on various yield enhancing aspects of modern pineapple production, including selection of quality sucker to the uses of hormones, and identifying the exact symptom of harvesting in the pineapple field. Data were collected from randomly selected 75 respondents of three villages – namely, Radhanagor, Mohazerabad and Lakhai of Sreemangal upazila, Moulvibazar district using pre-tested interview schedule from 1 September to 2 October, 2020. A score of 2 was given for each correct answer, 1 for partially correct answer and 0 to each incorrect answer. Thus, the score obtained for 13 questions represented the knowledge score of any respondent. Results revealed that about 57% of the pineapple growers had medium knowledge of modern method of pineapple production, while 28.0% had low and only about 15% had high knowledge in this regard. However, an overwhelming majority (87%) of them had strong knowledge about maturity symptoms of fruits, the majority (53%) had clear knowledge about Giant Kew and Honey Queen-two modern varieties of pineapple, and 51% could flawlessly answer the modern planting methods in terrace, about 48% correctly answered planting time, sucker number and sucker qualities for plantation. In comparison, 79% of the respondents did not know major diseases and pests of pineapple and their remedies. They (76%) had no clear ideas about irrigation requirements and their determining factors. About 60% of the respondents had either partially correct or inadequate knowledge of hormone applications. Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient (r) indicated that age (0.265*), educational qualification (0.447**), annual income (0.238*), experience of pineapple cultivation (0.479**) and communication exposure (0.766**) were found to positively significant relationship with the knowledge of pineapple growers, while family size (0.091), farm size (0.176), land area under pineapple cultivation (0.140), credit received (0.129) had no significant relationship.
Keywords: Farmers' knowledge, Pineapple