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Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2021, Volume 8, Number 1; Pages: 39-51

This research work was conducted to assess the livelihood status of the Khasia tribe and their perception of the impact of the social safety net programs (SSNPs) on their livelihood assets. A total of 120 respondents were interviewed using a structured questionnaire from Gowainghat and Jaintiapur of Sylhet District. Both primary and secondary data were used for the study. Descriptive statistics and a sustainable livelihood framework, ‘Asset pentagon’ were used for data analysis. The household-level livelihood assessment reveals that the annual average income of the agricultural household (Tk.106346.67) was higher than the average annual non-agricultural household income (Tk.79250.98). Again, the average annual expenditure of the agricultural household (Tk.96039.44) was higher than non-agricultural household (Tk.55921.04). However, the savings of non-agricultural households (Tk.23329.94) were higher than agricultural households (Tk.10307.67). In analyzing the livelihood pattern using different asset categories, the study reveals that SSNPs had significantly improved educational facility (77.5%), medical facility (50.8%), social group participation (56.7%), self-managerial ability (59.2%), social accessibility (52.5%), cash in hand (41.7%), and cash in the bank (46.7%) in the study area. The study recommends SSNPs such as vulnerable group feeding (VGF), vulnerable group development (VGD), widow allowances, and disability allowances for more effective support. These findings will be supportive of improving the livelihood condition of the Khasia tribe as well as other indigenous communities and disadvantaged groups of Bangladesh.

Keywords: Livelihood, Khasia tribe, Social Safety Net Programs (SSNPs), Sustainable livelihood framework.


Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2018, Volume 5, Number 2; Pages: 203-211

This study was conducted to investigate the livelihood status of fishermen of the Sari-Gowain River at Jaintiapur upazila under Sylhet district, Bangladesh. Randomly selected sixty fishermen from four villages were interviewed by using a structural questionnaire based on focused group discussion during December 2017 to May 2018. It is revealed that most of the fishermen (48.25%) were of middle age group (31 to 50 years). Among the respondents, around 78.5% fishermen were Muslim, and rests were Hindu. Around 71.5% respondents had nuclear family and 28.5% had joint family. Their family size ranged from 3-12 members; 10% fishermen had small family with 3-4 members, 60% had medium family with 5-7 family members, and rest 30% had large family with 8-12 family members. About 25.5% of the sampled fishermen received no education, 58.25% could sign only, 10.5% of the fishermen had education up to primary level, and 5.75% of the fishermen had education up to secondary level. Fishing is identified as the main income source for a large amount of fishers (41.5%) whereas 38.5% of the fishermen were involved in agricultural activities, 37.75% were involved in labor, and 23.25% were involved in boating as secondary occupation. About 70.5% of the fishers had access to drinking water from tube-wells and 29.5% used neighbours’ tubewells. Of the sampled fishermen 45.5% used earthen latrine, 4.25% used semi-cemented latrine, and 50.25% used open field for toilet purpose. Most of the fishers (45.25%) were found to live in houses in corrugated tin roof and bamboo wall houses. Among the fishermen 61.25% borrowed money from non-government organizations (NGOs), 30.5% from relatives, and 8.25% were economically self-sufficient. About 69% of the fishermen were dependent on village doctor and Kabiraj for treatment, 21.5% on upazila health complex, and 9.5% on MBBS doctor for health facilities. All of these findings indicate the poor socio-economic conditions which might have negative impact on their livelihoods, and thereby should be improved in order to make positive impact on the fisheries biodiversity of the river.

Keywords: Social status, fisherman, livelihood, biodiversity


Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2017, Volume 4, Number 2; Pages: 315-324

Rivers carry water and nutrients to areas all around the earth and provide excellent food and habitat for different microorganisms and also important for livelihood resides in the bank of the river. With an ever-growing population demand for water and increasing climate uncertainty, there is pressing need for improved understanding of the underlying patterns of natural variability of water resources and consideration of their implications for water resource management and conservation. In this regard various climatic parameters such as rainfall, temperature, humidity etc. shown significant trends in river water level. Rainfall, which was regarded as a main influencing factor found to same in the changes occurred during the study period, except the month of April to July. The change of the maximum and minimum temperature over the year was also found almost constant. As the temperature increases, the rate of evaporation also increases which tends to decline the river stage. But, the highest rainfall has put a significant influence to maintain the evaporation loss. In respect of humidity, the higher relative humidity occurred during the months from May to July in every year. In the winter season, evaporation occurred at a higher rate as the relative humidity decreases. As a result, river water level declines but during monsoon the river stages regain its original phase. Climatic parameters played an important role on river water level. Studies on geological settings reveal that the sediment deposition during the Holocene passing through the Sylhet basin occurred at a higher subsiding rate. It may be concluded from the study that an optimum utilization of land and water resources by understanding the morphological process and subsequent prediction for any intervention in Sylhet basin for the development of lives and livelihoods in the area.

Keywords: River, climatic parameters, livelihood and Sylhet basin


Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2017, Volume 4, Number 2; Pages: 297-308

The study was conducted to evaluate the impact of farming system research on farmers’ income and livelihood status in Dekar haor of Sunamganj district. A total of 120 farmers (i.e., 60 project and 60 non-project) were selected as the sample of the study. Data were collected through direct interviewing and were analyzed with a combination of descriptive and econometric analyses. The average farm size was about 2.44 acre and 2.00 acre for project farmers and non-project farmers in the study areas, respectively. The average annual income was Tk. 51530 and Tk. 39936 for the project and non-project farmers, respectively. Based on paired t test, the average annual income of project farmer was increased by Tk. 48570 to Tk. 51530 per year which is statistically significant at 5% level. On the other hand, the income of non-project farmer was decreased. The access on natural capital, financial capital, human capital, social capital and physical capital for project farmers was increased by 25.53%, 43.33%, 68.87%, 52.5% and 33.35%, respectively due to the involvement with this farming system research which is not satisfactory in case of non-project farmers. Institutional credit is not available to the farmers of the study area due to complex process. Different commercial bank should make the credit system to the farmers of haor area. If these problems could be solved within a reasonable time, farmers could earn more monetary income which might help them to change their livelihood status ultimately.

Keywords: Farming system research, income, livelihood, haor


Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2015, Volume 2, Number 2; Pages: 289-300

The study was conducted to elucidate the profitability of silk production. Six adjacent villages of Dhunatupazila of Bogra District were selected purposively for this study. A total of 60 sample farmers were selected randomly of which 35 were small, 19 were medium and another 6 were large farmers. Both tabular and statistical techniques were used in the study. A large number of labourers were employed in the sericulture activities. Cocoon production per 100 Disease free laying (DFL) employed about 11 man-days for producing cocoon and 100 percent of the labourers were female. Gross return of small, medium and large group of farmers were calculated at Tk. 3712, 4537.5 and 5467, respectively per 100 DFL. Total costs of cocoon production for the same three categories of farmers were estimated Tk. 1831, 1972 and 2318, respectively per 100 DFL and their corresponding gross margins were Tk. 2781, 3555.5 and 4229, respectively per 100 DFL. Net returns of cocoon production were calculated at Tk. 1881, 2565.5 and 3145 for small, medium and large farmers, respectively per 100 DFL and the corresponding undiscounted Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) came out to be 2.03, 2.30, and 2.35, respectively. Net return of all farmers was Tk. 2530.16 per 100 DFL and BCR was 2.31 which showed that cocoon production is profitable in the study areas.

Keywords: Silk production, livelihood, income generation, benefit cost analysis, and profitability


Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2015, Volume 2, Number 1; Pages: 97-105

An exploratory survey was conducted to investigate farmers dependency on fish farming for their livelihood in three upazilas of Sylhet district namely Kanighat, Gowainghat and Golabgonj from July to December 2013. Sixty fish farmers were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The study showed that in all farming systems middle aged farmers were found the highest percentage (58.3%). About 55% families of integrated farmers had 6-above members while lowest 35% in semi-intensive farmers. The highest illiterate (40%) was found in extensive farmers and the lowest 15% each in semi-intensive and integrated farmers. About 36.67% of the respondents had tin shed house, 18.33% had kacha, 31.67% had half-building and only 13.33% had building. On an average, 13.33% farmers were used pucka toilets while 20% semi-intensive farmers and 15% integrated farmers used pucka toilet. The lowest 65% extensive farmers used tubewell water while it was observed 90% for semi-intensive farmers. About 55% semi intensive farmers got treatment from upazila health complex while it was only 45% for extensive farmers but a considerable portion depended upon village doctors where highest (40%) extensive farmers. It was revealed that highest percentage 45% of semi-intensive farmers gained training from UFO while only 25% of extensive farmers got training from UFO. It was found that farmers had tremendous scope for harnessing natural resources. No impact of religion was found on farming but electricity played vital role. It was observed that 60% of extensive farmer’s primary occupation was agriculture while 20% and 25% semi-intensive and integrated farmer’s primary occupation was agriculture, respectively. Self-financed farmers occupied the highest position in all types of farming. Significant difference was found in annual income among the farming systems as highest income (2,65,250 BDT) in semi intensive farming and lowest (95,500 BDT) in extensive farming. Main constraints were inadequate supply of quality fingerlings (26.67%), high production cost (21.67%) and the low quality feed (18.33%). The livelihood outcomes found positive and 76.67% farmers viewed that they have improved their socio-economic conditions. Necessary training on scientific fish culture, establishment of hatchery by GOs and NGOs to ensure quality fingerlings and massive extension work can mitigate the problems of fish culture in the study area.

Keywords: Livelihood, fish farming, socio-economic condition, respondent farmers, Sylhet


Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2014, Volume 1, Number 1; Pages: 65-72

The investigation was conducted on the socio-economic condition of fishermen in Jelepara under Pahartoli of Chittagong district. Randomly selected 50 were interviewed among 200 fishermen. From the survey it was found that 94% fishermen were male and 6% were female. A large portion was Hindus (88%) and rest was Muslims (12%). About 84% were found married. Single family was much more (94%) than joint families. It was found that the number of school going children was 1.9 per house and 54% were school dropout boy and 46% were girl. Eighty eight percent houses were full katcha, while semi-pacca were12% and all the families have electricity facilities. Different types of net were used viz: the set bagnet, tong jal, current jal, tanajal etc. They used engine boats and engine power ranges from 8 to 22 HP. On average a group of fishermen (4) caught 35-80kg/day using a boat. Maximum fishermen sold their fish after fulfilling their demand. Monthly average income was around BDT. 6000-15000. Fifty six percent of the fishermen borrowed money from money lenders and 44% from the NGO’s. They need more institutional, organizational and technical help for the betterment of their socio-economic condition and sustainable livelihood.

Keywords: Livelihood, structural questionnaire, catch per unit effort (CPUE)


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