MR Alam1, MA Jalil2*, BK Sarker3, T Mussa4
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2022, Volume 9, Number 2; Pages: 137-141
Peste des petits ruminant (PPR) is goat’s most fatal infectious disease. The study aimed to describe the prevalence of PPR in goats in the Chuadanga district of Bangladesh. This study was conducted in this area using clinical history and clinical examination of the animals. A total of 250 goats were randomly selected for this study, irrespective of age, sex, breed, and immune status. There were common findings such as high fever, nasolacrimal discharge, mucosal ulceration and erosion in the oral cavity, rapid breathing, and diarrhea during the clinical examination of the PPR-affected goats. The overall prevalence of PPR was 44%. The higher prevalence was observed significantly (P=0.006) in 7-12 months age group (52.85%) compared to 0-6 months age group (40.48%) and >12 months age group (25.58%). Male (35.96%) goats were less prone to PPR than females (50.74%), and Black Bengal goats had a higher affinity (45.60%) than Jamnapari (39.71%). Non-vaccinated goats were highly prevalent (47.89%) to PPR than vaccinated (31.67%). The highest prevalence was found in March (48.72%) and most of the cases (41.81%) were treated with Oxytetracycline, antihistamine, and fluid therapy. These findings may exert awareness of farmers regarding PPR for goat rearing.
Keywords: PPR, Goat, Prevalence, Animal, Chuadanga
MM Rana1*, CI Lim1*, MSK Sarker1, MR Hassan1, M Aftabuzzaman3,4
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2022, Volume 9, Number 2; Pages: 143-148
This study aimed to asses the different light intensities’ effect on performance, serum biochemical Variables, and behavior of broiler chickens. 1200 newly hatched broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 light intensity treatments in 24-floor pens of 4.2 m* per pen at 42 days. The treatments consisted of 5, 10, 20, and 30 lux as constant during the whole study and the subsequent changes of light intensity were 30-20-10 and 20-10-5 lux that was altered after each rearing period. The results showed that body weight gain, feed intake, and FCR were unaffected by the treatments at 11, 25, and 42 days and overall period of 0 to 42 days of age. The serum biochemical parameters did not alter by the treatments. When the behavioral expressions were assessed during the entire study, light of varying intensities affected time spent on sitting, standing and pecking activity. Spending less time in an inactive behavior (sitting plus standing) was observed under 30 lux, while spending more time in an active behavior (walking plus pecking) was observed under the 20-10-35 lux treated group. Thus, the results obtained from the study suggested that growth performance and serum biochemical constituents did not differ with variations of light intensity, but varying light intensities had executed minor effects on the behavior of broilers. It can also be concluded that constant light intensity of not more than 5 lux or subsequent changes in light intensity could be applied in broiler farms without any adverse effects.
Keywords: Behavior; Light intensity; Performance; Serum quality
MM Rana1*, CI Lim2, MSK Sarker1, MR Hassan1, M Aftabuzzaman3,4
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2022, Volume 9, Number 2; Pages: 149-156
This study evaluated the effects of drinking water temperature during the summer period on growth performance, meat quality, and serum biochemical traits in growing broilers. A total of 360 Cobb 500 broilers with uniform body weight aged 21 days were assigned to 3 treatments and 8 replicates of 15 birds cach. Three groups were treated with drinking water, including ordinary room temperature tap water, and two fixed temperature water of 15.4°C and 24.3°C. The duration of the trial ranged from 22 to 35 days. Before the commencement of the study, all the broilers (400-day-old chicks) were fed commercial pre- starter (3050 kcal/kg ME, 22.50% CP) and starter (3100 kcal/kg ME, 20.50% CP) diet for the first 7 days and the next 14 days. The finisher dict containing 3200 kcal/kg of ME and 18.5% CP was fed up during the trial period. Results showed that the body weight gain (BWG) and feed intake (FI) were influenced (P < 0.01) by the drinking water temperature of 15.4°C and 24.3°C as compared to ordinary tap water. The highest body weight and feed intake were observed in the 15.4°C drinking water temperature group. But no consistent difference in BWG between the 15.4°C and 24.3°C water temperature group was observed. The treatments did not alter the color of the meat except for yellowness and other meat quality parameters. Moreover, no differences were found in the fatty acid composition of breast and thigh meat. Significantly (P < 0.05) lower glucose and higher alanine aminotransferase concentration in serum were found in the group treated with 15.4°C water. These results indicated that drinking water temperature below the ambient level during summer can effectively improve the growth performance, meat quality and maintaining homeostasis balance.
Keywords: Broiler; Water temperature; Meat quality; Serum; Summer season
M Islam1, MA Kashem2, MS Uddin1*, MSA Talucder1, S Ali2 and M Das1
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2022, Volume 9, Number 2; Pages: 157-166
The experiment was carried out from April to September 2018 in Sujanagar village in Barlekha upazila of Moulvibazar district to observe the growth and biomass of the agar plants ranging from 1 to 15 years of age and soils characteristics of the plantation areas. Fifteen agar gardens were selected, and data were collected from 20 sample plants from each garden on growth, biomass, and soil nutrients. The plant height from bottom to top ranged from 1.11 m to 10.21 m, while it was 0.57 m to 4.80 m for the bottom to collar region height. The measured plant circumference ranges from 2.64 to 56.97 cm at the base (20 cm above ground level) and 1.59 to 32.27 cm at the collar region. The trend was similar for plant diameter, which ranges from 0.90 to 14.23 cm at the base and 0.53 to 9.14 cm at the collar region. The diameter at breast height ranges from 1.42 cm in to 12.32 cm in a 15 years old plants. From a 3 years old plants 3 years old plants to 15 years old plants, the estimated biomass ranges from 16 to 44 kg plant™. The plant height, branches, circumference, and biomass were found to increase in early-aged plants but became slow after eight (08) years. The pH of the soil was acidic (pH value ranging from 4.1 to 4.8), with organic matter ranging from 1.0 to 3.0% and N (%) from 0.09 to 0.15%. Available phosphorus and sulfur were found to be below the critical levels, with phosphorus ranging from 2.0 to 10.0 ppm and available sulfur ranging from 3.0 to 9.0 ppm. In the plantations, the exchangeable potassium ranged between 0.10 and 0.25 meqg/ 100g soil. The nutrient availability was found to be very low, which limits biomass production.
Keywords: Aquilaria malaccensis, Agar, Growth analysis, Plant age, Biomass.
SJ Anny1, MA Islam1*, F Yeasmin2, S Debnath1
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2022, Volume 9, Number 2; Pages: 167-175
The main objective of the study was to determine the attitude of the peri-urban women towards homestead gardening. The study was conducted in two peri-urban areas —namely, Jahanpur and Sayedpur at the premises of Sadar upazila of Sylhet district. Data were collected from 100 women following a simple random sampling technique from a population of 1624 women using a pretested well-structured questionnaire interview schedule from 26 April through 30 May, 2018. Attitude was measured on 24 statements mainly constructed on cognitive, affective, conative, and evaluative issues of homestead gardening. Scoring for each positive statement was done on the basis of response of the respondent by assigning +2, +1, 0, -1, and -2 to the five alternative responses as “strongly agree”, “agree”, “undecided”, “disagree”, and “strongly disagree” fashion. A reverse score was assigned for a negative statement. Findings indicated that 57% of the respondents were middle-aged, 49% had a secondary level of education, 65% of them had medium family size, and the majority (67%) had medium knowledge about gardening. The respondents had no training experience (48%), very low organizational participation (86%), and medium cosmopoliteness (62%). Most of them (67%) showed a moderately favorable attitude towards homestead gardening, followed by 20 percent showed less favorable, and only 13 percent showed a highly favorable attitude. They evaluated homestead gardening as a profitable enterprise (ranked 1%; AI=148) and a good source of family nutrition (ranked 2″; AI=144). Pleasing feelings with homestead gardening (ranked 3″;AI=143) has developed a belief regarding effective use of leisure time (AI=129), which ranked 4”. An idea of ‘establishing a homestead garden from a long distance of land gardening ensure more production’ generated through experiencing this practice ranked 5″ (AI=128). In contrast, insect and pest infestation, absence of a suitable environment for growing vegetables year round, sudden loss of production, complexity in maintenance, and high cost of growing vegetables during the summer season were the negative impact of homestead gardening. Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient ‘r’ showed that the attitude of the peri-urban women is significantly and positively associated with annual income, homestead size, knowledge, use of information sources, and cosmopoliteness.
Keywords: Attitude, homestead gardening, peri-urban women
S Begum, MM Rahman, R Hasan, A Muqit, MM Islam, IJ Ema and M Asad-ud-Doullah1*
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2022, Volume 9, Number 2; Pages: 177-187
Seed—borne infections of rice by Pyricularia oryzae (Teliomorph: Magnaparthe oryzae) were studied during two Boro scasons (2018/19 and 2019/20) with naturally infected seeds of three rice cultivars — namely, BRRI dhan28, BRRI dhan29 and Binadhan—10 in BADC farm of Sylhet of Bangladesh. The objectives of the study were to observe blast disease development in the field, determine seed infection, the subsequent impact of seed transmission, and on planting value of seeds. In this study, the disease index was the highest in the tillering stage of BRRI dhan28 followed by BRRI dhan29, and the lowest was in Binadhan—10 in both years. The moisture content of before-sowing seed samples of three rice varieties ranged from 12.10-13.00%, but samples of harvested seeds were 13.20—-14.50% in the boro season of the years. The purity percentages of before-sowing and after-harvest seeds of Binadhan—10 were the highest in both seasons (91.4, 94.4 and 93.3, 95.90) followed by BRRI dhan29 and BRRI dhan28. Highest normal seedlings were observed in Binadhan—10 in both seasons. Nine sced—borne fungi were recorded in after—harvest seed samples in 2018/19 and eight fungi in 2019/20, but no Pyricularia oryza was identified in tested seed samples. Binadhan—10 showed lower seed infection compared to other varieties. The seedling infection by blast pathogen at the coleoptile indicates seed—to—seedling transmission of the pathogen. The lowest coleoptile infection was observed in Binadhan—10 compared to BRRI dhan29 and BRRI dhan28. In both seasons, the highest planting value (46.33 & 71.56%) was reduced in Binadhan—10 followed by BRRI dhan28 (32.48 & 56.20%) and BRRI dhan29 (38.35 & 58.88%) before sowing seed samples. Binadhan—10 also exhibited the highest planting value (73.89 & 86.50%) in after harvest seed sample. Considering the data recorded from the field and laboratory Binadhan—10 was found to be better for cultivation in the Boro season in Sylhet.
Keywords: Blast of rice, transmission, planting value, disease index, colcoptiles
MA Islam*, MA Rahman and S Deb
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2022, Volume 9, Number 2; Pages: 189-195
The main objective of the study was to determine the attitude of the smallholder farmers towards modern maize production and to explore the relationships between the selected characteristics of the maize growers and the attitude. The study was conducted in three villages under Goaldihi union of Khansama upazila of Dinajpur district. Data were collected from 50 maize growers randomly selected as sample from a population of 93 growers of three selected villages by using a pretested well-structured interview schedule from 1 October to 30 November, 2018. Attitude was measured through 30 items constructed on cognitive, affective, conative and evaluative psychology of growers towards the modern maize production. Results revealed that majority (70%) of the growers had moderately favorable attitude towards modern maize production followed by 16% less favorable and only 14% had highly favorable attitude. The results also revealed that attitude of smallholders was mainly influenced by their cognition (AI=38.0 scores), conation (AI=35.75 scores), evaluation (AI=24.21 scores) and affection (AI=13.16 scores) to modern maize production. Precisely, high profit, facilitated family nutrition, source of livestock feed and rich source of fuel straw for family consumption had substantial influence on such attitude. The result of Pearson’s product moment correlation co-efficient ‘r’ showed significant positive association between the education, annual income, profit gained, cosmopoliteness, use of communication media and the attitude of smallholder farmers towards modern maize production cognitive.
Keywords: Attitude, Modern maize production, Small holder farmer
M Nuruzzaman1, MA Islam1*,F Yeasmin2 and B Deb1
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2022, Volume 9, Number 2; Pages: 197-204
The focus of the study was to assess farmers’ perception regarding different characteristics of a T. Aman rice variety BRRI dhan87 and to explore the relationships between the farmers selected characteristics and the perception. The study was conducted in three unions of Dowara bazar upazila under Sunamganj district. Data were collected from the farmers utilizing a pre-tested interview schedule from 01 October to 20 November 2020. Perception was estimated based on the responses of the farmers to 31 statements constructed on different characteristics of BRRI dhan87 in a four point scale of measurement. Findings revealed that the majority of farmers (42%) had moderate perception followed by 36% low and 22% high perception about the characteristics of BRRI dhan87. Out of 31 characteristics, the top five perceived were: shorter life span (PI=144), slender and fine grain (PI=143), higher market price (PI=141), rain-fed cultivation (PI=125), and lodging resistant (PI=124). However, among the five broader characteristics of BRRIdhan87, the mean perception index (PI) of complexity had the highest (106.6 scores). The score was elicited by the non-availability of quality seeds at the farmers door steps, input sensitive yield, and supplemental irrigation causes yield variation. The results also revealed that respondents’ level of education, area of BRRI dhan87, communication media exposure, organizational participation, knowledge of BRRI dhan87, and experience were highly associated with their perception.
Keywords: BRRI dhan87, farmers’ perception, observability, trialability, compatibility, relative advantage, small holder farmer
MJ Islam1*, MA Hasan1, A Sayem1 and M Kunda1
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2022, Volume 9, Number 2; Pages: 205-212
The objective of the study was to investigate the marketing system of Hilsa fish (Tenualosa ilisha) in the
Meghna River estuarine region of Bangladesh. Hilsa fish, the national fish of Bangladesh, is highly popular among the people. However, many common people cannot access this fish due to high price owing to apparent the absence of an effective marketing system. Our research revealed that the marketing of Hilsa fish in the Meghna River estuary involves various key stakeholders, including fishers, faria (middlemen), bapari (wholesalers), aratder (commission agents), and ultimately reaches the consumers through retailers. To analyze the marketing patterns and pricing strategies of Hilsa fish, a sample size of 60 respondents was selected as key informant. Data was collected through a semi-structured questionnaire. The findings suggest price of the fish at the retail market is determined based on market conditions, negotiations between retailers and consumers. Fishermen and aratder utilize an auction method for selling their fish, while faria employ open bargaining, auctions, and the prevailing market price. Additionally, our findings indicate that though Hilsa fish continues to be sold at high prices,
however, fishers are unable to receive a reasonable price for their catch due to the involvement of mahajons (money lenders), who compel fishers to sell at a predetermined rate, much lower than existing market price. As a result, the economic conditions of the fishers remain poor and vulnerable.
Keywords: Marketing system, national fish, hilsa fishery
M Islam*, TN Bushra and MI Hossain
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2022, Volume 9, Number 2; Pages: 213-224
In Bangladesh, people mostly depend on groundwater to satisfy the demand for domestic and agricultural water supplies. Insufficient surface storage and successively falling groundwater levels have created a dreadful situation in the Northwestern region. The study aims to analyze and predict the groundwater level in the Rajshahi district. Mean monthly rainfall data from 2009 to 2020 and groundwater level data from 1995 to 2020 were collected from Barind Multipurpose Development Authority for this study. “MAKESENS” software was used to analyze the trend of rainfall, depth to the groundwater table, and prediction of the groundwater table. Trend analysis showed the water table depth had increased drastically in all the observation wells (except Gopalpur 1) and increased 2.46 times higher in Haripur within 26 years. Rainfall variation in the study area was very irregular, having the highest rainfall in 2020 and the trend line showing the slightest increment in annual rainfall. Most of the wells showed an increasing trend in the depth to water table with the decrease in rainfall. On the contrary, in 2015, the well of Godagari Upazila showed that the depth to water table increased although there was maximum rainfall. The prediction for the year 2040 has implied that if the trend continues , the depth of the groundwater table will be 2-4 times higher, maximum increment in Haripur (18.056 m). The result of this study will be a scope to safeguard the groundwater to ensure the sustainability of water resources in the Rajshahi district.
Keywords: Prediction, MAKESENS, Rajshahi District
Keywords: Author guidelines