F Ishaque, M A Hossain, M A R Sarker and M M Islam
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2015, Volume 2, Number 2; Pages: 301-305
An investigation was carried out to assess drinking water quality parameters like pH, total dissolved solids, iron (Fe), arsenic (As) and chloride at Sylhet Agricultural University (SAU) Campus. As this university is expanding its academic activities and establishments, it is necessary to ensure the quality of drinking water for the dwellers to continue their academic and research activities smoothly. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water in this university. The water samples were collected from the tube well and reserved tank at 5 different locations in April, 2016 covering student hall and academic establishment. The concentration of pH, TDS, Fe and Cl varied 6.8 – 7.04, 100 – 440 mg l-1, 0.5 – 1.2 mg l-1 and 15 – 20 mg l-1, respectively. The concentration of as was 0 mg l-1 for all water samples. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) standard and Bangladesh Standard (BD) of drinking water pH, TS, TDS, as and Cl toxicity were not detected. Iron concentration of main pump water sample exceeded Bangladesh standard and WHO standard and for this an aeration tank was recommended for the treatment of water before supply. Analysis of arsenic revealed that there is no arsenic contamination in groundwater at this campus.
Keywords: Drinking water, quality parameters, assessment
B B Siddiq, M Mannaf, J U Ahmed and M S Alamgir
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2015, Volume 2, Number 2; Pages: 289-300
The study was conducted to elucidate the profitability of silk production. Six adjacent villages of Dhunatupazila of Bogra District were selected purposively for this study. A total of 60 sample farmers were selected randomly of which 35 were small, 19 were medium and another 6 were large farmers. Both tabular and statistical techniques were used in the study. A large number of labourers were employed in the sericulture activities. Cocoon production per 100 Disease free laying (DFL) employed about 11 man-days for producing cocoon and 100 percent of the labourers were female. Gross return of small, medium and large group of farmers were calculated at Tk. 3712, 4537.5 and 5467, respectively per 100 DFL. Total costs of cocoon production for the same three categories of farmers were estimated Tk. 1831, 1972 and 2318, respectively per 100 DFL and their corresponding gross margins were Tk. 2781, 3555.5 and 4229, respectively per 100 DFL. Net returns of cocoon production were calculated at Tk. 1881, 2565.5 and 3145 for small, medium and large farmers, respectively per 100 DFL and the corresponding undiscounted Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) came out to be 2.03, 2.30, and 2.35, respectively. Net return of all farmers was Tk. 2530.16 per 100 DFL and BCR was 2.31 which showed that cocoon production is profitable in the study areas.
Keywords: Silk production, livelihood, income generation, benefit cost analysis, and profitability
M M Hossain, M D Hossain, M A Noor, A S M T Haque and M A Kabir
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2015, Volume 2, Number 2; Pages: 283-287
An in-depth investigation was carried out on the quality aspects of some dried fish products collected from different super shops of Dhaka city in Bangladesh. The colour of four different dried fish samples namely Parshe (Mugil cephalus), Bombay duck (Harpodon nehereus), Shark (Scoliodon shorrakowah), and Ribbon fish (Trichiurus haumela), were brown yellowish to shiny silvery with little difference among the species. Texture of solar tunnel dried fish products was harder and not easily flexible with characteristic odour. No infestation or broken pieces were found around the products. The reconstitution properties of four dried marine fish muscles were assessed at a wide range of temperatures after soaking in water for 15 to 60 minutes. The results shows that as temperature increase (from 20°C to 80°C) reconstitution level was increased and it was in the range of 65.01% to 76.34% in Parshe, 48.26% to 66.16% in Shark, 70.16% to 78.77% in Bombay duck and in Ribbon fish it was found 74.09% to 59.46%. After 15 minutes of soaking time at all the temperature of all the samples were shown similar pattern except Ribbon fish. Bombay duck showed higher constitution rate (74.1%) while lower percentage shown in Shark meat (48.26%). After soaking for 60 minutes at 60°C, the highest level of reconstitution properties was in the range of 59.03% to 78.39% with minimum in Shark and maximum in Bombay duck. Reconstitution capacity of dried fish samples increased considerably with increase in temperature and duration of time. When the samples were allowed soak at 80°C, for a period of 60 min. reconstitution level was in the range of 59.46% to 78.77% with maximum value recorded for Bombay duck and the minimum value for Ribbon fish. Moisture content of Parshe, Shark, Bombay Duck and Ribbon fish were varied between 21.19% to 24.46%. It was found higher in Ribbon fish (24.46%) rather than lower in Parshe (21.19%). Ash, protein, and lipid content of dried fish samples of these species were in the range of 8.1% to 15.02%, 61.25% to 68.09 % and 2.97% to 8.22%, respectively. The pH value of the studied samples varied from 6.2 to 8.13. Parshe and Bombay duck showed higher pH (8.03 and 8.13) while, Shark and Ribbon fish showed lower pH (6.2). The comparative study of microbiological load (cfu gm-1) of four (collected twice) dried fish examined in laboratory for standard plate count (SPC). The microbial load of four dried fish samples collected from different super shops of Dhaka city varied a range of 7.06 ×103 cfu gm-1 to 5.58 × 104 cfu gm-1. The results revealed that Shark (S2) and Parshe (S1) carried bacterial load high and it was 5.58 × 104 cfu gm-1 and 4.25 × 104 cfu gm-1, respectively. The results of TVB-N of four dried fish in summer varied 48.28 ± 0.87 to 70.73 ± 0.22 mg-N 100 g-1. While, TMA-N of this four dried fish were 43.5± 0.46, 34.14 ± 0.69 mg N 100 g-1, 56.17 ± 0.29 and 44.15 ± 0.96 mg N 100 g-1 , respectively. In winter, TVB-N and TMA-N of the four common dried fish varied over a range of 33.31 ± 0.75 to 62.23 ±0.71 mg N 100 g-1 and 22.81±0.08 to 51.13±0.45 mg N 100 g-1). All the values of studied samples were much lower than acceptable limit which ranged between 30 – 40 mg-N 100 g-1. The results of the study indicated that dried fish products were acceptable quality in terms of organoleptic and food quality aspects.
Keywords: Dried fish, organoleptic, microbiological, proximate composition and water reconstitution rate
M D Hossain, M S R Bhuiyan, M S Hossain, D N R Paul and M Z Ullah
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2015, Volume 2, Number 2; Pages: 275-281
The present experiment was carried out at the flower central market Agargaon and Shahbag, Dhaka during the period from November 2013 to October 2014 to investigate the market demand, supply and price of different genotypes of gladiolus flower. The experiment included five gladiolus genotypes. Data were collected from different wholesalers and farmers. The results indicated that the existence of wide variability among the genotypes on their market demand, supply and price of different genotypes of gladiolus flower. These indicators were varied among different month of the year, different days of the week and different special days of the year. The highest demand was observed in February (100%) and the lowest was in July (70%). The highest supply was observed in February (112%) while the lowest was in June and July (58%). The average highest price of gladiolus flower was observed in August (Tk. 11.40) and the lowest price was observed in March (Tk. 4.90). The highest and lowest price of different genotypes of gladiolus flower was ranged from Tk. 2.00 to Tk. 16.00 stick-1. The white genotype had the highest price Tk. 16.00 stick-1 while the orange genotype had the lowest price Tk. 2.00 stick-1. There was significant positive correlation between demand and supply (0.96). The price was negatively correlated with supply (-0.94).
Keywords: Gladiolus, genotype, demand, supply and price
G K Ghosh, M A Khatun and B Banu
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2015, Volume 2, Number 2; Pages: 267-273
The present study was undertaken to analyze the relative profitability of dairy cows. The focus of the present study was to quantify the cost and returns and to explore the interrelationship of factors affecting yield, cost and net return. It also attempted to examine the rural employment and income generation potentials of dairy enterprise. Dairy farming was studied in 5 villages of Tarash upazila in Sirajganj district from the study areas sixty farmers were selected randomly, based on the availability of which 30 were local breed raisers and 30 were cross breed raisers. Dairy cow rearing was found to be a profitable enterprise. The per day total cost of rising per cross-breed dairy to be profitable enterprise- The per day total cost of rising per local breed and cross-breed dairy cow was estimated at Tk. 22.65 and 64.40, respectively. Feed cost was the largest single cost item of raising dairy cows. The estimated gross return per cow per day stood at Tk. 57.56 for local breed cows while it amounted to Tk. 229.76 for cross breed cows. In this study, the net retums per dairy cow per day were Tk. 17.62 and Tk. 134.55 for local breed and cross breed dairy cows, respectively. The average milk productions per day per cow were 1.25 litre and 5.60 litre for local breed and cross breed dairy cows, respectively. The study identified some crucial problems such as milk marketing problem, scarcity of feed and fodder, lack of improved breed, lack of veterinary care and services, lack of institutional credit and high price of concentrate feed. The major remedial measures as suggested by farmers is to assurance of supply feeds and fodder, veterinary care and services, supply of institutional credit at low interest, availability of concentrate feeds, improved breeding and marketing facilities. Finally following the summary of the study some policy implications are suggested and scopes for further studies are indicated.
Keywords: Dairy cow, cost, return, profitability, resource use efficiency
M M Rashid, M M M Alam, M D Huh and M M Rahman
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2015, Volume 2, Number 2; Pages: 257-266
A histopathological health assessment for olive flounder Paralicthyes olivaceus, with different size based on total body length and weight, was carried out. Two samplings were performed: (I) on 4th October 2010 and (II) on 25th January 2011. Two groups of fishes were administered for the study from the same culture system and age group- the big sized fishes (fast growing) and the small sized fishes (slow growing). Clinical record, blood chemistry, total protein (Tp), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), functional indices i.e., hepato somatic index (HSI) and hepato hypertropic index (HHI), and histological studies of different organs (liver, stomach, intestine, spleen, kidney and heart) were performed for each individual of each group. Moderate to severe fatty change of liver were observed in both groups of fishes in case of sampling I. Moderate to severe atrophy of liver were observed in both groups of sampling II. Focal epicarditis were observed in sampling I for big sized fishes, and vacuolative changes of gastric gland of big sized fishes were observed in sampling II under light microscopic examination. Tp, Ht, and HHI were recorded significantly higher (p values ranged from 0.001 to 0.032) for big sized fish group in sampling I. In sampling II only HHI was found significantly higher (p = 0.004) in big sized fish group. Thus, it can be concluded that fast growing individuals are more vulnerable to disease based on the histopathological assessment. This information will be helpful to prevent and control diseases for different age groups of olive flounder by taking different management practices.
Keywords: Fatty change, epicarditis, vacuolative change, olive flounder, Paralichthyes olivaceus
M M Rahman, M M M Alam, S M I Khalil, S M Bari and M M Rashid
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2015, Volume 2, Number 2; Pages: 247-256
Chemicals and drugs are widely used to increase aquaculture production in Bangladesh. The study was conducted in public and private aquaculture farms, hatcheries, nurseries and aquaculture entrepreneurs located in North-Eastern Bangladesh to know the status of chemicals and aqua drugs. Data were collected through questionnaire interview, personal contact, market survey and participatory rural appraisal (PRA) i.e. focus group discussion (FGD) with fish hatchery owners, nursery and culture farmers and retailers of aqua medicine and representatives of pharmaceutical companies. A number of diseases were reported in the study area by the farmers i.e. dropsy, fin and tail rot, and Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS), which were treated using different chemicals and antibiotics. A variety of aqua drugs and chemicals were used in aquaculture for pond management, oxygen supplier, toxic gas reducer, antibiotics and growth promoters. JV zeolite, Oxymax, Bio Aqua-50, Oxy-dox F, Acemix Super Fish, etc. were used as growth promoters. Five brand antibiotics, with the trade names of Oxy-Dox-F, Doxy-A-Vet, Oxy-D-Vet, Oxy-tetra vet and Eskamycine, were used for treatment of diseases with the dosage of 0.8 mg kg-1 feed, 1 mg kg-1 feed, 15 – 20 g per 100 kg fish, 0.8 – 1.0 mg kg-1 feed and 1 – 1.5 g kg-1 feed, respectively. Liming (0.5 – 1 kg decimal-1) was the most common treatment used by the farmers. Salt (250 – 500 g decimal-1) and potassium permanganate (5 – 15 ppm) were also used. Some farms used pesticide to control parasitic infection in their ponds. Several under reported fish diseases were also found that could not be confirmed by laboratory diagnosis during this study. Further studies for laboratory diagnosis of the diseases are recommended to identify the actual causes and treatment.
Keywords: Antibiotics, disinfectants, aqua drugs, fish health management, freshwater aquaculture
B D Trina, N C Roy, S K Das and H J Ferdausi
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2015, Volume 2, Number 2; Pages: 239-246
A study was conducted to assess the socioeconomic status of fishers’ community at Dekhar haor, in Sunamganj of Bangladesh for a period of 9 months from April to December 2014. It was done by questionnaire interviews (QI) of fishers, focus group discussions (FGD), key informant interviews (KII) and secondary data collection. Socioeconomic status of fishers’ community in Dekhar haor was presented in terms of family size and type, occupational status, educational status, housing condition, drinking water facilities, sanitary facilities, credit facilities and annual income etc. Most of the fishers were belonged to the age groups of 10 to 30 years (55%), represented by 80% Muslim. Over 70% of the fishers primary occupation was fishing, 20% was engaged in agriculture and 5% in daily labour, 1% in business activities and 4% unemployed. About 57% of the fishers were only could write name while 7%, 26% and 10% of the fishers were illiterate, primary and secondary level of education, respectively. The highest 90% fishers were living in tin roof with bamboo wall where only 8% were living in tin roof with brick wall house. About 75% of the fishers used semi-pakka while 15% used pakka and 5% of the fishers had no sanitary toilet facilities. It was found that only 20% of the fishers received health service from village doctors, 20% from upazila health complex, 38.50% from Kobiraj, 11.50% from homeopath medicine and remaining 10% got health service from private doctors. Most of the fishers of the haor basin used neighborhood tube-well for drinking water. The highest number (74%) of the fishers’ annual income ranged between 40,000 and 60,000 BDT. It was also revealed that illiteracy and lack of awareness were the major constraints. For the betterment of socioeconomic status of fishers, spreading out of education, health and sanitation, loan amenities from the government agencies and upgraded management of the local resources are suggested.
Keywords: Fishers, socioeconomic, constrains, Dekhar haor
N Mia, M Kunda, A H A Rashid and M J Islam
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2015, Volume 2, Number 2; Pages: 229-238
The study was carried out on fish marketing system of Sylhet sadar upazila to find out the existing marketing channels and also to explore marketing cost and income of wholesalers and retailers in the study areas. The present investigation was conducted for a period of April to September 2014 in five different markets of Sylhet sadar upazila. A total of 120 fish traders were randomly selected for the study and data were collected through direct interview using a well-structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions (FGD) were carried out by a previously made checklist. Key informant interviews were made to cross-check the collected data from the fish traders. In Sylhet sadar a large number of people were involved in the fish marketing channel as bapari, aratdar, paiker and retailer. In the study area, it was found that the total marketing cost of wholesaler was estimated BDT 2.72 kg-1 of fish. Transportation was the highest cost comprising 29.41% of the total marketing cost. The second highest cost component was the icing comprising 25.73% of total marketing cost and the lowest was security comprising 4.41% of the total marketing cost. The total marketing cost of retailer in the study area was estimated BDT 2.03 kg-1 of fish. Icing was the highest cost comprising 29.55% transportation was the second highest 27.09% and the lowest electricity comprising 5.91% of the total marketing cost. Traders faced numbers of problems such as security, electricity, icing, market toll, personal expense and transportation etc. To improve the fish marketing facilities it is essential to establish ice factory, improve fish transport facilities and to introduce fish quality monitoring unit.
Keywords: Fish market channel, wholesale market, retail market, FGD
M A Samad, M I Hossain, M Lutfunnahar, A K Paul and H Ferdaushy
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2015, Volume 2, Number 2; Pages: 221-227
An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of feed supplement on growth and production performance of fingerlings of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) such as T1 (25% protein supplement), T2 (30% protein supplement) and T3 (35% protein supplement), and each having three replications for a period of 60 days from 17 July to 16September 2012 in Rajshahi University hatchery complex. In this experiment, same stocking density was maintained in the study with different protein level supplemented feed. The highest final weight gain (22.480.34 g), survival rate (93.330.83%) and cost benefit ratio (CBR) were found in T3 (1:1.13). The lowest feed conversion ratio (1.480.01) was observed in T3 and the highest FCR value (1.910.04) was recorded in T1. The net profit was the highest in T3 and lowest in T1, which was significantly (p<0.05) different among the treatments. Cost and benefit ratio were calculated among the treatments. CBR was also the highest in T3 (1:1.13) and lowest in T1 (1:0.40). Findings indicated that treatment T3 (35% protein containing feed) was found best in terms of production and economics of M. pecieus fingerlings cultured in ponds.
Keywords: Feed, fingerlings, production and black carp
A K M F Haque, N Begum and M S Islam
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2015, Volume 2, Number 2; Pages: 209-219
An experiment was carried out at two selected stations in the Sangu river estuary with the Bay of Bengal, Chittagong, Bangladesh to determine the abundance and monthly variations of phytoplankton and zooplankton communities as well as some physico-chemical parameters of water for a period of twelve months from August 2013 to July 2014. Water temperature, salinity and pH were recorded on the spot during each sampling. The NO3-N and PO4-P of the collected water samples were measured in the laboratory. The highest temperature (28.50 C at station I and 290 C at station II) was in September and the lowest (200 C at station I and 21.20 C at station II) in January. Salinity fluctuated from 13.0 to 32.0 ppt at station I in July and February, respectively and 15.0 to 33.0 ppt at station II in July and February, respectively. The highest pH (8.45) was recorded at station I in October. The highest NO3-N (2.3 mg l-1 and 2.1 mg l-1 at station I and II, respectively) and PO4-P (2.9 mg l-1 and 2.5 mg l-1 at station I and II, respectively) was recorded in August. In total 97 phytoplankton species were identified and 2 types could not be identified. Among the phytoplankton, 58 species belonged to Bacillariophyceae, 14 to Dinophyceae, 11 to Chlorophyceae, 6 to Cyanophyceae, 4 to Polycystinea and 4 to Polyhymenophorea. The highest phytoplankton production (117.3 × 103 cells l-1 at station I and 104.7×103 cells l-1 at station II) was found in August and the lowest (28.77 × 103 cells l-1 at station I and 29.6 × 103 cells l-1 at station II) in January. Phytoplankton bloom was observed in the study area in August. A total of 16 different zooplankton genera were recorded of which 12 belonging to Copepoda, 3 Rotifera and 1 Decapoda. Copepoda was the dominant group followed by Rotifera and Decapoda. The highest number of zooplankton (1,466 cells l-1 at station I and 1,198 cells l-1 at station II) was recorded in January and the lowest (280 cells l-1 at station I and 172 cells l-1 at station II) in August. The highest number of phytoplankton was appeared in August, which may be due to higher level of nutrients and water quality like temperature, salinity and pH were also within the favorable ranges. But zooplankton population was comparatively lower at that period owing to phytoplankton bloom. Therefore, the findings of this study would be helpful for the conservation of plankton community, biodiversity of the waters and congenial environment of the tidal waters.
Keywords: Seasonal variations, phytoplankton, zooplankton, nutrients, water quality parameters
M A Rahaman, M Jahan, K S Islam and S N Alam
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2015, Volume 2, Number 2; Pages: 203-208
Biology of fruit fly was examined in MCC Bangladesh field laboratory at Bogra from July to October 2009 as a part of development of the management strategies for cucurbit fruit fly (CFF), Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) on bitter gourd. Biology of melon fruit fly, B. cucurbitae revealed that eggs laid by female were creamy white, slightly curved, elongated and tapering towards the ends. Surface of egg was sculptured with numerous longitudinal ridges and grooves. On an average, freshly laid eggs measured 0.78 mm in length and 0.16 mm in width; the average length of larva was 8.8 mm and width was 1.52 mm; the average length of pupa was 4.22 mm and width was 1.76 mm; the average length of the adult male was 13.78 mm and width was 7.06 mm, where the average length of the adult female was 15.62 mm and width was 8.86 mm. The mean incubation period of the fruit fly was 6.98 days. The average larval developmental period was 18.66 days. The average pupal period was 21.3 days. The mean duration of adult stage was 27.67 days. The mean duration of egg to adult was 40.34 days.
Keywords: Bactrocera cucurbitae, biology, cucurbit fruit fly, morphometric and incubation period.
S Bilkis, M R Islam, M Jahiruddin and M M Rahaman
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2015, Volume 2, Number 2; Pages: 195-201
With the concept of “Improvement and sustenance of crop yield and soil fertility through efficient nutrient management with integrated use of manures and fertilizers”, the present study was conducted to evaluate the field performances of different types of manures such as cowdung (CD), cowdung slurry (CD slurry), trichocompost (TC), vermicompost (VC), poultry manure (PM) and poultry manure slurry (PM slurry) in Boro rice at Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU) farm during 2011 – 2012. Cowdung, CD slurry, TC and VC were added to soil at 5 t ha-1, and PM and PM slurry were applied at 3 t ha-1. Addition of manures and fertilizers (IPNS treatments) significantly increased the grain and straw yields of rice and significantly influenced different yield attributes. Nutrient uptake by Boro rice was significantly affected by different treatments. Trichocompost and vermicompost containing treatments produced higher crop yield followed by poultry manure slurry and cowdung slurry. Integrated use of manures and fertilizers gave on an average 8.3% – 33.8% grain yield increase in Boro rice over sole chemical fertilizers treatment.
Keywords: Cowdung slurry, poultry manure slurry, trichocompost, vermicompost, nutrient uptake
M M H Sarker, M Jahiruddin, A Z M Moslehuddin and M R Islam
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2015, Volume 2, Number 2; Pages: 189-193
There was an attempt of searching out of deficient micronutrient for okra in the Old Meghna Estuarine Floodplain (AEZ 19). The study was conducted in Chandina upazila of Comilla district covering AEZ 19. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with 3 (three) replications at farmers’ field during 2011-2012. In this study 7 (seven) treatment combinations including a control were tested and the treatments were designed taking all essential micronutrients except Cl following additive element trial technique. The rates of micronutrients were 3 kg Zn, 2 kg B, 2 kg Cu, 3 kg Mn, 5 kg Fe and 1 kg Mo ha-1. Sole application of Zn along with recommended doses of N, P, K and S was found sufficient for the highest yield of pod and stover, pod length and pod diameter whereas pod yield plant-1 and average pod weight were showed the highest responses by the combine application of Zn and B. Although, the highest yield of pod and stover (11.23 and 3.21 t ha-1, respectively) was produced from T7 treatment, there was observed no additive effect due to the application of micronutrients other than Zn and B. Almost similar trend was observed in other growth and yield parameters, and uptake of different nutrient elements.
Keywords: AEZ 19, okra, micronutrients
M S A Talucder
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2015, Volume 2, Number 2; Pages: 183-188
Investigating long term trend of precipitation is important for understanding the effect of climate change. The objective of this study was to document and examining the seasonal and annual trends of precipitation in Moulvibazar district of Bangladesh from daily precipitation data of Sreemangal Meteorological Station of Moulvibazar for a period of 65 years (1950-2014) using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test. Annually, 65 years average precipitation was 2420±390 mm whereas dry season (December-March), pre-monsoon (April-May), monsoon (June-September) and post-monsoon (October-November) seasons average were 131±89 mm, 639±223 mm, 1447±276 mm and 203±111 mm, respectively. Dry season showed the most inconsistency (coefficient of variation, CV 68%) while monsoon season showed the most consistency (CV 19%) among the seasons. The findings of the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test reveal that significant decreasing trend of rainfall was only found in monsoon season time series. No significant trend was found in either annually (decreasing), dry season (decreasing), pre-monsoon season (increasing) and post-monsoon season (decreasing).
Keywords: Precipitation, trend analysis, climate change
A Hossain, A H M M Haque, J Datta, T R Tanni and R Hasan
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2015, Volume 2, Number 2; Pages: 179-182
The yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is decreasing day by day due to some seed borne pathogen in Bangladesh. In this experiment, some plant extract and chemical fungicides were evaluated against seed borne pathogens of chickpea along with germination ability. A total of 15 seed samples of BARI Chola-9 were collected from different chickpea growing areas in Bangladesh. A significant variation was observed in germination percentage as well as pathogen association of the seeds. Seven seed-borne fungi such as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium sp., Fusarium sp., Botrytis cinerea, Rhizopus stolonifer and Alternaria alternata were detected. The highest prevalence of seed borne pathogen in chickpea was found from Bianibazar upazila sample along with lowest germination percentage. After the seed treatment with plant extract and chemical fungicides, the lowest disease incidence was found in Bavistin 70 WP than other treatments. Thus, Bavistin 70 WP may be an efficient seed-treating chemical fungicide to control seed borne pathogens of chickpea.
Keywords: Chemical, plant extract, chickpea, fungicide, germination
M I Hossain, M M Hossain, J Ferdousi and M M Haque
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2015, Volume 2, Number 2; Pages: 171-178
A field study was conducted to investigate the effect of foliar application of GA3 and plant ages on yield and quality of carrot seed. Three different plant ages (20, 30 and 40 days) and four concentrations of GA3 (0, 100, 200, 300 ppm) were considered as treatments in the study. The design of the experiment was two factorial Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications where three different plant ages (20, 30 and 40 days) were comprised as factor- A and four different GA3 concentrations (0, 100, 200, 300 ppm) were considered as factor- B. Results showed that plant age of 30 days was found to produce highest seed yield (1152 kg ha-1) followed by 1051 kg ha-1 from 40 days plant age while the lowest seed yield (916.6 kg ha-1) was harvested from 20 days plant age. On the other hand, the highest seed yield (1849 kg ha-1.) was obtained from foliar application with 200 ppm GA3 followed by 300 ppm GA3 (1267 kg ha-1.). The lowest seed yield (106.2 kg ha-1.) was obtained from the control treatment (no application of GA3). The highest yield was obtained (2120 kg ha-1) from the plots having effect of 30 days plant age with 200 ppm of GA3 application. It was statistically/interaction similar to those plots (1924 kg ha-1) of 40 days plant age combined with 200 ppm GA3 application. The lowest seed yield (102.1 kg ha-1) was harvested from the plots of 20 days plant age without GA3 treatment. The study revealed that 30 days plant age with foliar application of GA3 at 200 ppm produced the best quality and the highest seed yield (2.12 t ha-1) in the tropical carrot variety Bejo shetal.
Keywords: Carrot, GA3 application, seed yield, quality
B Debnath, J Mia, D Debnath and M S Islam
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2015, Volume 2, Number 2; Pages: 165-169
The present study was conducted with four cauliflower genotypes viz., CL-170, CL-171, CL-172 and BARI Fulcopi-1 and three sowing dates viz., 25 August, 5 September and 25 October. The experiment was conducted during the winter season of 2013-14 at the field laboratory of Horticulture Department of Sylhet Agricultural University (SAU) to evaluate growth and yield of cauliflower genotypes and to identify the suitable planting time in Sylhet conditions. Results showed that sowing dates and genotypes had significant influenced on growth and yield of cauliflower. The lowest days to first curd harvest was from the plant grown in 5 October sowing (86.25 days) while it was the highest from the plants in 25 August sowing (91.58 days). The highest whole plant weight was recorded from the plants of 25 August sowing (0.78 kg) while the highest individual curd weight (0.48 kg) and only curd weight (0.31 kg) was recorded in 15 September sowing. The plants in 15 September sowing produced the highest curd yield (16.32 t ha-1) followed by 15 August sowing (15.64 t ha-1). Days to first curd initiation and days to first harvest were significantly different among the genotypes. CL-171 was the earliest to first harvest (88.69 days) while the genotype CL-170 required 91.22 days to first harvest. The genotype BARI Fulcopi-1 had the highest whole plant weight (0.97 kg), marketable curd weight (0.55 kg) and only curd weight (0.32 kg). Among the four genotypes, BARI Fulcopi-1 produced the highest marketable curd yield (18.7 t ha-1) followed by CL-171 (16.37 t ha-1). Whole plant weight, marketable curd weight and only curd weight were significantly influenced by the interaction of genotypes and sowing dates. The highest marketable curd was harvested from the genotype BARI Fulcopi-1 (20.74 t ha-1) when grown in 15 September sowing which was followed by the same genotype from 25 August sowing (18.7 t ha-1).
Keywords: Cauliflower, genotype, sowing date, hilly area
M A R Choudhury, M M Rahman, M Z Alam, M M Hossain and Q A Khaliq
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2015, Volume 2, Number 2; Pages: 157-163
An experiment was undertaken to screen ten promising brinjal genotypes namely BARI Begun-1, BARI Begun-6, BARI Begun-8, BARI Begun-9, BARI Begun-10, BARI F1 Begun-4, Metal Hybrid F1 Begun, Getco Hybrid F1 Begun, local genotypes Singnath and Green ball against Brinjal shoot and fruit borer (BSFB) and to observe their relative level of tolerance and yield performance under natural field conditions in winter (September 2014 to March 2015). The highest fruit yield of 33.32 t ha-1 was harvested from BARI Begun-1 and the lowest 15.63 t ha-1 was obtained from Green ball. The highest and the lowest shoot infestation 17.30% and 7.74% were recorded in BARI Begun-8 and BARI Begun-6, respectively. The lowest fruit infestation by number and weight (20.00% and 18.07%) was found in BARI Begun-1 and the highest fruit infestation by number and weight (42.94% and 42.90%) was observed in BARI Begun-8. Varietal tolerance of brinjal against BSFB indicated significant variations among tested genotypes. The BARI Begun-1 showed the moderate level of tolerance and BARI Begun-8 found to be highly susceptible to BSFB.
Keywords: Screening, Brinjal genotype, brinjal shoot and fruit borer, yield
M A R Choudhury, M M Rahman, M Z Alam, M M Hossain and Q A Khaliq
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2015, Volume 2, Number 2; Pages: 149-155
A field study was conducted at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU), Gazipur, in summer season during February to August 2014 to know the seasonal fluctuation pattern of insect pests and natural enemies in brinjal ecosystem. The major insect pests were found in brinjal field viz. jassid (136.02 per 10 leaves), whitefly (92.88 per 10 leaves), aphid (83.33 per 10 leaves) and brinjal shoot and fruit borer (20.44 male moth per trap-week) and their highest population was observed at 70, 85, 70 and 116 days after transplanting (DAT). Epilachna beetle, leaf beetle, green leaf hopper and leaf roller indicated as the relatively minor pests of brinjal. Average temperature showed significant positive correlation with the population of jassid, whitefly, aphid, brinjal shoot and fruit borer and epilachna beetle. While average relative humidity had a significant negative correlation with population of jassid, whitefly and aphid. A significant negative correlation was also observed in case of rainfall for white fly and aphid. Natural enemies found in the brinjal field were spider, black ant, lady bird beetle, carabid beetle, syrphid fly and preying mantid.
Keywords: Brinjal, seasonal fluctuation, insect pest, natural enemy.
F A Mila, M S Rahman, N Nahar, D Debnath and M K H Shahjada
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2015, Volume 2, Number 1; Pages: 143-147
The estimation of profitability and to investigate the factors affecting the yield of bitter gourd production at Narsingdi district in 2013 was designed. The study area was selected purposively and a total of 100 farmers were randomly selected. The stochastic Cobb-Douglas production frontier model was used for estimating the factors that affecting bitter gourd production. The study used both descriptive and functional analysis to achieve the objectives of the study. The study divulged that bitter gourd production was profitable in the study areas. Average yield of bitter gourd was found to be 27.5 ton ha-1 and average gross return was Tk. 5,50,000 ha-1. Total cost of production was found to be Tk. 3,06,810 ha-1. Net return and BCR was found to be Tk. 2.43,190 ha-1 and 1.79, respectively. The functional analyses suggested that human labour, Urea, TSP, cow dung and irrigation had positive and significant effect on the yield of bitter gourd in the study areas. Among different constraints, attacked by insect and diseases, lack of quality seed and high price of input were dominant in the study areas. Necessary steps from the concern authority are essential to solve the problems regarding bitter gourd cultivation and to increase the production as well as the income of the farmers in the study areas.
Keywords: Profitability, Bitter gourd, gross margin, net return, BCR, Cobb-Douglas
P Hajong, S Mondal, D Saha, S Ishtiaque and S K Paul
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2015, Volume 2, Number 1; Pages: 137-141
The study was undertaken to assess the input use pattern, cost of production, economic profitability, and contribution of different factors of Panikachu production in Jessore dictrict of Bangladesh. The study area were purposively selected and a total of 60 panikachu growers taking 30 from each upazila. Total quantity of different input of human labor, seedling, manure, insecticide, irrigation and fertilizer were 910 man days/ha, 37895 no./ha, 10000 Tk ha-1, 13044 Tk ha-1, 25989 Tk ha-1 and 2974 Kg ha-1 respectively. Total cost of production of Panikachu was 358966 Tk ha-1 where 316537 Tk ha-1 was variable cost and fixed cost was 42429 Tk ha-1. Among the cost item labor cost was the high as 50.69% and fertilizer cost 17.43 % cost of production. The yield of rhizome and stolon were 50 ton and 35 ton ha-1. The average gross return was calculated as Tk 655000 ha-1. The net margin of Panikachu cultivation was 296034 Tk ha-1. On the average, benefit cost ratio was 1.82 on full cost basis and 2.07 on cash cost basis. All the co-efficient of human labor, seedling, urea and MoP were positive and significant impact on the yield of Panikachu production. The coefficient of determination was 0.57. Ninety five percent farmers mentioned that they faced insects and disease infestation at Panikachu cultivation.
Keywords: Economic, panikachu, production
D Pandit, M Kunda, M J Islam, M A Islam and P P Barman
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2015, Volume 2, Number 1; Pages: 127-135
The study was conducted to identify the present status of fish diversity in Soma Nadi Jalmohal of Sunamganj for a period of 11 months from June 2013 to April 2014. The study was done by questionnaire interviews (QI) of fishers, focus group discussions (FGD), key informant interviews (KII) and secondary data collection. A total of 56 species of fishes including prawn species belonging to 21 families were recorded from the jalmohal where Cyprinidae was the most dominant family contributing 16 species. The present availability status of fish species was remarked in three categories and obtained as 26 commonly available (47%), 18 moderately available (32%) and 12 rarely available species (21%). Among 56 available species, 8 species of carps, 12 species of catfishes, 9 species of barbs and minnows, 4 species of snakeheads, 4 species of eels, 10 species of perches, 3 species of loaches and other miscellaneous 6 species including 3 species of prawns were listed. The highest diversified group was catfishes (21.43%). Of 54 threatened fish species listed by IUCN (2000), only 20 species were found during the study period where 7 species were commonly available, 9 species were moderately available and 4 species were rarely available in the study area. The results of the study is implying that fish diversity of the jalmohal have been declining gradually due to some manmade and natural causes such as dewatering, sedimentation, overfishing, use of illegal fishing gears, catching of brood fishes etc. Community based fisheries management, use of appropriate fishing gears, sanctuary establishment and management, implementation of fish laws and regulations, fingerling stocking and dredging of beels and canals can play a great role in conserving fish diversity.
Keywords: Fish diversity, jalmohal, fishermen, questionnaire interviews, FGD
T K Paul and M M M Alam
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2015, Volume 2, Number 1; Pages: 117-125
The study was conducted to assess the feasibility of rice-straw ash (RSA) as liming material in aquaculture through four experiments for a period of 6 month from February to July 2003. The first experiment was carried out using quick lime (CaO) as control. The second was conducted to determine the effects of RSA on mud turbidity and water quality. The third was conducted to determine the effects of RSA on water quality and growth of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The fourth was conducted to determine the effects of RSA on water quality. The neutralizing value and efficiency rating of RSA were about 11.02% and 30.17%, respectively, which were much lower than CaO. RSA brought total alkalinity to 227mgL-1 as CaCO3, which was much lower than CaO (1,775 mg/L as CaCO3). Total hardness increased by RSA was significantly higher than CaO (P < 0.05). Increase of pH by RSA was significantly lower than CaO (P < 0.05). RSA was not effective in removing mud turbidity. Total alkalinity was positively correlated with RSA doses. RSA raised pH value significantly at all doses compared to control. All treatments indicated that RSA released significant amount of phosphorus. RSA has potentials to be used as low-cost alternative liming material and phosphorus source for aquaculture. It is therefore recommended that RSA may be applied at the rate of 7.5 - 20 g/L-1 to maintain favourable pH, total alkalinity and total hardness in aquaculture pond. The study will contribute to increase aquaculture production through utilizing low-cost alternative liming material i.e. RSA, especially for resource-poor farmers.
Keywords: Rice-straw ash, alternative liming material, pH, aquaculture, Oreochromis niloticus
S F Haque, M M Iqbal, M A R Hossain, M A Hossain and M A Rahman
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2015, Volume 2, Number 1; Pages: 107-116
The present study was conducted for six months from July to December, 2014 at Massimpur bazar dry fish market in Sylhet district of Bangladesh to evaluate the value chain of dried fishery products. Six hundreds beparis (wholesaler), seventeen arotdars (commission agent), 270 wholesalers and 90 retailer shops were found in the market. Among them a total of 70 dried fish traders were selected randomly and interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The net profit of bepari, arotdar, wholesaler and retailer were 5.98 Tk.kg-1, 6.26Tk.kg-1, 7.30Tk.kg-1, 8.10 Tk.kg-1, respectively. Thirty five species of dried fish were found in the market during the study period. It was found that high priced fish demanded high marketing cost resulting higher marketing margin and profit compared to low-priced fish. The price of dried fish was depended on the size, availability, transport, labor and season. The most abundant species was Phaisa (Harpadon nehereus) (19.32%) followed by Shol (Channa striatus) (5.21%) and Gozar (Channa marulis) (4.78%). Five marketing channels were found that comprise asset of intermediaries including producers/processors, beparies/mohajons (wholesaler), arotdars, wholesalers and retailers. Involvement of more intermediaries in the marketing channel was the reason of increasing product price. Study revealed a number of constraints for wholesalers and retailers including rapid damage of dry fishes, lack of proper hygienic condition, high transaction costs, and lack of capitals, poor marketing infrastructure, transportation and storage facilities.
Keywords: Dried fish, marketing, wholesaler, retailer, consumer, northeast region of Bangladesh