D Afrin, M F Hossain, S M Z Hasan, M Khalekuzzaman and B Sikdar
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2016, Volume 3, Number 2; Pages: 315-323
Citrus species are among the most important fruit crops in the world. Citrus bacterial spot disease is caused by the bacteria Xanthomona axonopodis pv. citrumelo which may cause huge damage of citrus production. The pathogen was isolated and cultured on LB liquid media at pH 7.5 and bacterial growth developed within 48 to 72 hours. Colonies on the nutrient agar media were straw yellow and creamy in color. Isolated bacteria identified by Gram staining, Endospore staining, KOH and MacConey agar test and the result showed that isolated bacteria were gram negative. It also showed positive result in case of Catalase, Simmons citrate agar, TSI, Oxidase and KIA test. In case of carbohydrate test, highest OD (0.26) was observed in Maltose containing medium of the isolate. The isolate was tested against ten plant extracts and fifteen antibiotics. The isolate was highly sensitive against cefotaxime, neomycin, streptomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, azithromycin antibiotics and the susceptibility zones were 28±0.5, 26±0.5, 23±0.5, 17±0.5, 20±0.5, 17±0.5 mm respectively. Antimicrobial activity of ten plant extracts showed that the isolateis susceptible to Momordica charantia extract, revealed a wide antibacterial spectrum against the bacterial strain.
Keywords: Citrus bacterial spot, infectious disease, Xanthomonas axonopodis, gram negative bacteria, antimicrobial activity
S R Rahman, M Z Alam and S Mukta
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2016, Volume 3, Number 2; Pages: 307-313
Yogurt is a fermented milk product obtained from fermentation of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains. The aim of this study was to produce yogurt using isolated native starters Lactobacillus delbruckii sub sp. Bulgaricus and Streptococcus saliverius sub sp. thermophilus. In this study yogurt samples were collected from the local markets. The native starters were isolated, purified and identified according to Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology. Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus were screened with respect to their acid and flavour production for the preparation of a natural yogurt and compared to a commercial starter cultures. Yogurt was made by inoculating isolated bacteria (starter culture) usually Lactobacillus delbruckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus saliverius subsp. thermophilus into milk. After inoculation the mixture was incubated at 42°C for 6 to 8 hours and coagulation was observed and yogurt pH was measured. It is well known that yogurt production using native starter cultures instead of commercial ones is beneficial in respect of both economic and organoleptic aspects. The present results indicated that the isolated native yogurt starters can be used in yogurt manufacturing industry at a large scale.
Keywords: Yogurt, starter culture, fermented product, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus
S Mukta, K M Nasiruddin and S R Rahman
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2016, Volume 3, Number 2; Pages: 299-306
The environmental stresses such as salinity (soil or water) are serious obstacles for field crops especially in the arid and semi-arid tracts of the world. In order to investigate impact of salinity stress on rice seed germination and early seedling stage conducted at glasshouse and biotechnology laboratory of Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA), Mymensingh-2200. A total number of 80 rice germplasms were used to evaluate for salinity tolerance at seedling stage following IRRI standard protocol. Hydroponic system was used to evaluate salt tolerance of these germplasms using nutrient solution and controlled environment. The modified standard evaluation system (SES) of IRRI was used to score the discriminate of the tolerant, moderately tolerant and susceptible rice lines. Scoring was done at 12th, 18th, 30th day after salinization. Among the germplasms, 12 were found as salt tolerant, 13 were found as moderately tolerant, 26 were susceptible and 29 were highly susceptible. The plant height, root length and total dry matter (TDM) weight are greatly affected by the salinity. Considering percent reduction in plant height, root length and total dry matter weight, it can be concluded that Hogla, Patnai, Jamai Naru, FL378, Bazra Muri and Jota Balam were tolerant.
Keywords: Rice, salinity, seedling
D Afrin, L Arbia, R F Rahman and A K Roy
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2016, Volume 3, Number 2; Pages: 291-298
The investigation was conducted to evaluate the performances of rearing of eighteen races of silkworm, Bombyx mori L. Characters viz., weight of mature larva, number of cocoon kg-1, yield 100 dfls-1 (disease free layings), cocoon weight, shell weight, shell ratio and length of filament were evaluated in a single rearing season. Performances of the race BSR-BN (B1) were reasonably good for no. of cocoon kg-1, cocoon weight and shell ratio. BSR-BN (M) showed the highest rearing performance for shell weight but the BSR-ISK and BSR-BN (P) M were good for yield and length of filament, respectively. On the other hand, the race Nistari (G) was poor for cocoon weight and shell weight and the races Nistid white (P), BSR-BN (B1), Nistari (P), BSR-I (M) and BSR-IK (M) showed poor rearing performances for weight of mature larvae, shell weight, shell ratio, length of filament and yield 100 dfls-1 respectively in this investigation. Analysis of correlation conducted on the results of the experiment indicated that the characters of the races were correlated with yield non-significantly. Negative correlation between yield 100 dfls-1 and no. of cocoon kg-1 showed higher yield improvement which would be a good combination for an improved method of silk production.
Keywords: Bombyx mori L., rearing performances, yield, correlation, silk production
M Hasan, J Ahmed, M H Sohag, Al-Hakim and A K Azad
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2016, Volume 3, Number 2; Pages: 281-289
Cellulases are the enzymes which hydrolyse cellulosic biomass and are being produced by the microorganisms grown over cellulosic substrates. The cellulase producing fungal isolates were obtained from sea sands and cellulosic waste materials. Four fungal species were isolated and screened by using Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC) agar medium as a selective medium. Production of clear zones by the fungal isolates on CMC agar medium supplemented with 1% CMC was considered as indicative of extracellular cellulase activity. The size of transparent zone diameter was considered as proportional to the level of cellulase production. These fungal isolates were identified as Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp. and Fusarium sp. by studying their microscopic and macroscopic characters. A basal medium containing CMC, KH2PO4, K2HPO4, MgSO4, (NH4)2SO4, CaCl2 and FeSO4 at pH 7.0 was used for cellulase production. The assay of cellulase in term of CMCase was performed by measuring the release of reducing sugar. The crude cellulase produced by these fungal isolates was partially characterized. Optimum temperature for maximum cellulytic activity was 35°C and was active at 35°-40°C. The cellulase activity was significantly active over a broad pH range from 5.0 to 8.0 having maximum activity at pH 6.0.
Keywords: Cellulase, Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC), Marine fungi, CMCase activity
M A Hossain, F Ishaque, M A R Sarker, S P Ritu and M F Hussain
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2016, Volume 3, Number 2; Pages: 271-280
Drainage system of Sylhet Agricultural University is often blocked by sediment and solid waste consequences in a water-logged situation. To eradicate this problem, a study was conducted to design of sustainable storm water drainage system for Sylhet Agricultural University. The rainfall data from the secondary sources and relevant data of topography and vegetation from the primary and secondary sources were collected to endure the study. An endeavor to analyze the present scenario of drainage system in this university was accomplished through questionnaire survey, informal interview and open discussion. Hence, hydrological data analysis paves the way to design the most economical and efficient hydrologic design of drainage system. 100 years return period and 1-hour rainfall depth was estimated to prepare an Intensity-Duration-Frequency curve. The study area was dividing into three catchments based on topography. The time of concentration of 1st, 2nd, and 3rdcatchments were 5.21, 4.72 and 5.75 min., respectively. However, peak discharges of three catchments were calculated using rational formula and the values were 1.19 m3s-1, 1.2 m3s-1 and 2.2 m3s-1, respectively. Rectangular cross-sections of drains for three catchments were designed using Manning’s equation according to peak discharge. Therefore, total cost was also estimated. A proper management system for storm water drainage was also suggested to reduce the potential of flooding and clogging in the campus area.
Keywords: Drainage system, hydrologic design, peak discharge
M A Hossain, F Ishaque, M A R Sarker, S P Ritu and S Rashid
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2016, Volume 3, Number 2; Pages: 263-270
This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness and performance of different low-cost filter media in the removal for iron from drinking water. Three water samples were collected from Tilagor area. The iron concentrations of the collected samples were 2.5 mg l-1, 3 mg l-1 and 3.86 mg l-1 respectively. The iron concentrations of the samples exceeded the Bangladesh standard in drinking water which is 0.3-1.0 mg l-1. So, the water sample was needed to be treated to lower the iron concentration to a safe level. To prepare the filter media a several numbers of low-cost materials were collected. They were Sand (0.5 to 1.0 mm) and gravel (less than 12 mm), Neem leaves ash (0.5 to 0.6 mm), Banana leaves ash (0.5 to 0.6 mm), Wood charcoal (less than 10mm) and Rice husk (0.5 to 0.6 mm). Single measurement for each of the material was obtained to measure the effectiveness of these materials for removal of iron. The efficiency of Sand and gravel, Neem leaves ash, Banana leaves ash, Wood charcoal, and Rice husk mixture were 53%, 58%, 81% and 93% respectively. A final filter column was prepared using the best combination of these media to obtain a better performance. The efficiency of recommended filter column was measured as 98% which was satisfactory indeed.
Keywords: Iron, drinking water, low-cost filter media, safe level, efficiency
P Somajpoti, J U Ahmed, M Mannaf, M N Mozahid and M S Alam
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2016, Volume 3, Number 2; Pages: 253-262
The study is an attempt to examine the economic analysis of cauliflower and cabbage production in selected areas of Sylhet district. A total of 45 farmers were randomly selected from three villages namely Dighirpar, Basantagaon and Paschimdarsa at Sylhet Sadar upazila in Sylhet district. The major findings of this study revealed that production of the selected homestead vegetables were profitable. Per acre gross cost of production of cauliflower and cabbage were Tk. 93860.55 and Tk. 92135.8, respectively and the corresponding gross returns were Tk. 229407.4 and Tk. 230800, respectively. Per acre net returns of producing cauliflower and cabbage were Tk. 135546.85 and Tk. 138664.2, respectively. Benefit cost ratios of cauliflower and cabbage production acre-1 were 2.44 and 2.50, respectively. The farmers earned the highest profit from cabbage production. The results of Cobb-Douglas production function model indicated that acre-1 gross returns were significantly influenced by the use of human labour, tillage operation, seeds, fertilizers, manure, irrigation and insecticides. These factors were directly or jointly responsible for influencing acre-1gross returns of cauliflower and cabbage. Some essential policy recommendations have been arisen which are: input and price support, and motivation and training programmes should be arranged by different government and non-government organizations and public-private partnership should be emphasized for creating scope to improve the overall economic condition of the farmers through homestead vegetable farming.
Keywords: Economics, cauliflower, cabbage, production, Sylhet
M S A Talha, M R U Mian, I T Jarin and M R Ahmed
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2016, Volume 3, Number 2; Pages: 245-252
This study is an effort to examine the effectiveness of SME loan of Rupali Bank Limited (RBL) through the adequacy, utilization and repayment of credit, profitability of SMEs and impact of loan among the borrowers. One hundred SME borrowers of the RBL in Mirpur area of Dhaka North City Corporation were randomly selected out of which 25 were from each of hotel and restaurant, beauty parlor, readymade garments and construction shop. Both tabular and econometric techniques were used to analyze the collected data. The study revealed that the construction shop owners’ saving were more satisfactory compared to other SMEs because of good earning capability. The adequacy and time requirement for getting loan were satisfactory which reflected RBL’s urge and sincerity to work in favor of small and medium entrepreneurs of the country. SME borrowers were found conscious about purposive utilization of loan money and their repayment performance was more or less satisfactory. Considering all SMEs together, impact of SME loan on family income was ranked the highest. Readymade garments’ cost was largest while it was lowest for the construction shop to obtain loan from the bank. Profitability of SMEs was moderate and the relationship between credit and profitability reflected the valuable contribution of credit in SME business. Corruption at loan sanctioning, lower productivity and contraction of market demand for the product were the major problems of SME financing. The RBL needs to apply flexible formalities and lower rate of interest for SME loans in order to bring effective impact among the borrowers.
Keywords: SME loan, loan adequacy, utilization, repayment, profitability, effectiveness
S S Basak, M A Basher, A K Saha and N C Roy
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2016, Volume 3, Number 2; Pages: 233-243
An investigation was carried out in fish landing centers and fish markets adjacent to Kaptai lake, Rangamati to identify the potentiality of fish landing centers, the diversity of available fish fauna and the marketing channel. The study was done by questionnaire interviews (QI) of fish traders, focus group discussions (FGD) and secondary data collection from April 2014 to March 2015 in 03 landing centers and 15 markets of Rangamati district. A total of 84 species of fishes, which consists of 75 finfish and 9 shellfish were identified during the study period. Among 75 finfish, 52 were indigenous freshwater fish species, 10 exotic species and 13 marine species. In shellfish group, 7 prawn and shrimp, 1 crab and 1 pond tortoise species were found. Different types of freshwater fish, marine fish, crustacean and dry fish were found in the investigated markets of Rangamati town. The most abundant freshwater fish species were Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Clarias batrachus, Cirrhinus cirrhosus, Channa punctatus. Few numbers of marine fishes including Latescal carifer, Euthynnus affinis and Mugil cephalus were also recorded. Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Penaeus monodon were found most abundantly during the study period. A total 20 species were threatened according to IUCN red list of Bangladesh including 7 vulnerable, 10 endangered and 3 critically endangered species out of 54 threatened fishes in fresh waters of Bangladesh. Among 7 vulnerable fishes 6 were available, 1 was rarely available. Among 10 endangered species 9 were available and 1 was rarely available. Among 3 critically endangered species 1 species was found available and 2 species were rarely available. Ten exotic fish species (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix, Ctenopharyngo donidella, Cyprinus carpio, Puntius gonionotus, Oreochromis niloticus, Oreochromis mossambicus, Pangasius hypopthalmus, Mylopharyngodon piceus, Aristichthys nobilis and Clarias gariepinus) were found in Kaptai lake during the study period. Fish biodiversity of Kaptailake is decreasing day by day due to habitat degradation and different manmade causes. Proper conservation measures should be taken to protect the threatened fish species from extinction.
Keywords: Kaptai lake, fish fauna, diversity, landing center and fish market
M A Samad, A Khanam, M I Hossain, M S Reza and M M Aktar
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2016, Volume 3, Number 2; Pages: 223-232
The research was conducted to study the effect of stocking density on growth a nd production of endangered Feather back Notopterus chitala fry in earthen ponds for a period of 75 days from 1 August to 15 September 2014. The average pond size was 0.002 ha with water depth 1 m. The fishes were stocked in the hatchery complex of University of Rajshahi with three treatments group each having three replicates. The average initial fish weight and length was 6.00±0.5g and 3.19±0.34 cm, respectively. Three stocking densities were maintained at 14820 fishes ha-1 (T1), 13585 fishes ha-1 (T2) and 12350 fishes ha-1(T3). Fishes were fed same diet with 27.5% protein in three different treatments consisting fish meal (25%), rice bran (20%), wheat bran (20%), maize bran (13%), mustard oil cake (25%) and vitamin premix (2%) at the rate of 8% body weight. The mean value of weight gain (g) was the highest (20.33±0.00) in T3 and lowest (15.32±0.009) in T1. Specific growth rate (SGR) was also the highest (1.64±0.001) in T3 and lowest (1.41±0.008) in T3. Significant difference was found for the mean values of weight gain and SGR. The survival rate of N. chitala was 82.33±1.20, 87.67±1.45, 94.50±1.50 in T1, T2, T3, respectively. The highest survival rate (94.50) was found in T3. The highest production (300.78±1.62 kg ha-1) was found in T3 followed by T2 and T1. Despite of this, consistently higher CBR (cost benefit ratio) was found in treatment T3 (1.8) than in treatments T2 (1.46) and T1 (1.2).
Keywords: Stocking density, endangered, Notopterus chitala, survival rate, production
J Ahmed, M A Maleque, M S Islam and M A H L Bhuiyan
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2016, Volume 3, Number 2; Pages: 215-221
The study was carried out in the Laboratory of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet during October to December 2014 with a view to assessing the effectiveness of four indigenous plants powder as protectant of stored chickpea seeds from the attack of pulse beetle (Callosobruchus chinensis L.). Plant powders were prepared from neem leaf (Azadirachta indica), black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.) and methi (Trigonella foenum graecum L.). Three doses of all four plant powders @ 5 g, 10 g and 15 g kg-1 of chickpea seeds were used to determine the oviposition inhibition, adult emergence (%), adult mortality (%) and seed weight loss (%) due to the attack of pulse beetle. All three doses of clove powder were found to be most effective in protecting chickpea seeds from the attack of pulse beetle, in terms of eggs laid (0), egg bearing seeds (0), adult emergence (0%) and seed weight loss (0%). In respect of above four parameters other treatments had negligible effect having no significant difference with the control. The result indicated that all three doses of clove powder could be used as protectant of chickpea seeds in storage. Low dose (5 g clove powder for 1 kg of chickpea seeds) could be preferable to other two higher doses (10 g, 15 g clove powder for 1 kg of chickpea seeds) in respect of lower cost involvement. Because low dose was found to be effective, year-round experiments could be undertaken to determine the effectiveness of some lower clove powder doses than that of 5 g clove powder kg-1 of chickpea seeds.
Keywords: Neem leaf, black pepper, clove, methi, botanicals
S Dey, A H M Mahfuzul Haque, R Hasan, S Sarker and A Biswas
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2016, Volume 3, Number 2; Pages: 209-214
The experiment was carried out to estimate the prevalence of seed-borne fungi of country bean at laboratory condition. Before placed, the seeds were treated with six different treatments namely Autostin 50WP, Aimcozim 50WP, Ata leaf extract (1:2 w/v), Neem leaf extract (1:2 w/v), Biskatali leaf extract (1:2 w/v) and Mahogani leaf extract (1:2 w/v). In laboratory, different seed-borne fungi like Aspergillus niger, Cercospora sesami, Rhizopus stolonifer, Alternaria sp. and Fusarium oxysporum were detected from the collected seed sample by blotter method. After 7 days of incubation, germination percentage varied significantly and ranged from 33.3% to 83.3%. The highest germination was found in Autostin 50 WP (83.3%) which was statistically similar with Aimcozim 50 WP (77.8%) and among botanicals the highest germination was recorded from the treatment Biskatali leaf extracts. Autostin 50 WP was found as the best seed treating chemicals in controlling seed borne fungi Aspergillus niger, Alternaria sp., Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer and Cercospora sesame compared to all other treatments.
Keywords: Country bean, botanical, chemical, seed borne fungi
M A Aziz and M A Kashem
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2016, Volume 3, Number 2; Pages: 203-208
The experiment was conducted at the farmers’ fields of two villages namely Bahadurpur and Noagaon at Sadar upazilla and Daskin Sunamganj, respectively under Dekar haor of Sunamganj district, Bangladesh during November 2015 to May 2016 to find out the effect of variety and fertilizer on the growth, yield and yield contributing characters of local fine boro rice. Four varieties (Tapi boro, Begun bichi, Rata boro, Atobshail) and three fertilizer treatments (Farmers’ practice, BARC recommendation guide based fertilizers and Soil test based fertilizers) were included in the experiment. The experiment was laid out in a two factors Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three disperse replications at farmers’ field. The highest grain yield of 2.81 t ha–1 was recorded from the variety Atobshail. The highest straw yield of 4.90 t ha–1 was recorded at Begun bichi. The grain yield was significantly affected due to fertilizer application, the lowest yield was observed in the farmers’ practice (2.22 t ha-1) and the highest was in STB fertilizer application (2.85 t ha-1). The highest grain yield of 2.91 t ha-1 was produced due to interaction of Tapiboro and application of soil test based fertilizer dose.
Keywords: Productivity, fine rice, fertilizer management, haor
M A Rahaman, M Jahan, K S Islam and S N Alam
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 197-202, Volume 3, Number 2; Pages: 2016
The experiment was carried out from April to May, 2011 at the laboratory of Mennonite Central Committee Bangladesh in Bogra district to know the efficacy of different soil amendments to control cucurbit fruit fly (CFF) Bactrocera cucurbitae. Seven treatments viz. Control (untreated), Dursban 20EC (@ 10 l ha-1), Furadan 3G (@ 10 kg ha-1), Neem oil cake (@ 1500 kg ha-1), Mustard oil cake (@ 1500 kg ha-1), Tricho compost (@ 2500 kg ha-1) and poultry refuse (@ 1500 kg ha-1) were used in the experiment and each treatment was replicated thrice. A similar effectiveness was found with the use of Dursban 20EC (@ 10 l ha-1), Furadan 3G (@ 10 kg ha-1) and poultry refuse (@ 1500 kg ha-1) for controlling of puparium. The experimental findings indicated that the use of poultry refuse (@ 1500 kg ha-1) in soil is a non-chemical way and could be a good practice in destroying the puparia of cucurbit fruit fly effectively for the bitter gourd farmers to manage the menace of fruit fly.
Keywords: Bactrocera cucurbitae, soil amendments, poultry refuse, pupal mortality, bitter gourd
M Rahman, K U Ahmed, M D Hossain, M Saha and M A Noor
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2016, Volume 3, Number 2; Pages: 189-195
The experiment was conducted at the Department of Biochemistry, Sher-E-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka and Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), Gazipur to investigate the chemical constituents of oils from rapeseed varieties Tori-7, SAU Sharisha-1 and Sampad, respectively. The highest (42.15%) oil content of seed was recorded in SAU Sharisha-1. On the other hand, the lowest (37.45%) oil content was recorded in the cultivar Sampad. The highest (185.13) saponification value was recorded in SAU Sharisha-1. On the other hand, the lowest (159.89) saponification value was recorded in Tori-7. The lowest (303.19) saponification equivalent was recorded in the SAU Sharisha-1, while the highest (350.88) saponification equivalent was recorded in Tori-7. The highest (0.55) acid value was recorded in Sampad, while the lowest (0.26) acid value was recorded in SAU Sharisha-1. The highest (110.00) iodine value was recorded in SAU Sharisha-1 and the lowest (104.50) iodine value was recorded in Sampad. The highest (0.75) unsaponifiable matter was recorded in Sampad, while the lowest (0.60) was recorded in Tori-7. The highest (4.38%) saturated fatty acid was recorded in SAU Sharisha-1, while the lowest (3.45%) was recorded in Tori-7. The highest (96.55%) total unsaturated fatty acid was recorded in Tori-7 and the lowest (90.43%) was recorded in SAU Sharisha-1.
Keywords: Oil, acid value, fatty acid, saponification, iodine value
B Paul, S Sarkar, M N Islam and R Das
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2016, Volume 3, Number 2; Pages: 181-187
Black Bengal goat is a highly prolific small ruminant well known for tender meat and good quality skin. A plenty of research work have already been conducted on the production performance of this goat breed but the research work to elucidate the histomorphology of different vital organs and glands of this breed is still in scarce. There is a close relation between the productivity and endocrine function. With an aim to study the histoarchitecture of adrenal gland of s/he goats, adrenal gland samples were collected from the government slaughter house of Sylhet, Bangladesh at the time of slaughtering. The differences in size and shape of the gland, the cortico-medullary ratio, cell size and nuclear diameters of the cortical and medullary tissues were studied in both sexes. For the histological examinations, the tissue pieces from adrenal glands were immersed in bouin’s fluid. After fixation, tissue samples were dehydrated, cleared, and embedded in paraffin. Haematoxylin and eosin staining method was used to examine tissue sections. The adrenal gland consisted of capsule (3.31% and 2.83%), cortex (70.75% and 72.26%) and medulla (25.94% and 24.91%) in buck and doe. The weight of the left gland was more than the right. Cortical cells were sometimes found in the medullary portion. Medullary epinephrine and norepinephrine cells size and nuclear diameter was more in male but the total length of medulla was more in female. The aim of this study is to provide valuable information for further research on the adrenal gland of goat.
Keywords: Black Bengal goat, adrenal gland, histoarchitecture, cortex, medulla
B Paul, S Sarkar, M N Islam, M Aktaruzzaman and S K Chowdhury
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2016, Volume 3, Number 2; Pages: 173-180
The research work was carried out to elucidate the comparative histomorphology of the oviduct of three lines of chicken like, sonali, deshi and hyline chicken aged between 8 to 10 months. After dissection, histological sections were prepared from different segments of oviduct using Hematoxyline and Eosin (H&E). Oviductal histology varied in regards to the mucosal folding, lining epithelium, and distribution of glands and connective tissues arrangement. Among the sonali, deshi and hyline chickens mucosal folds were taller in hyline chicken in the first three oviductal segments, but the mucosal folds of the last two segments were taller in deshi chicken, where in sonali chicken the mucosal folds were comparatively shorter. The mean height of mucosal folds of oviductal segments, infundibulum (1495.8±320.32 µm, 1916.7±341.57 µm and 2291.7±430.60 µm), magnum (283.33±51.64 µm, 566.7±132.92 µm and 775.00±223.05 µm), isthmus (1387.5±602.86 µm, 1566.7±182.80 µm and 1862.5±361.16 µm), uterus (1458.3±66.46 µm, 1716.7±143.76 µm and 1416.7±408.25 µm) and vagina (1145.8±94.10 µm, 1645.8±94.10 µm and 1541.7±204.12 µm) in sonali, deshi and hyline chicken, respectively. In all three types of studied birds, the lining epithelium of infundibulum was ciliated columnar epithelium, and in the other segments the epithelium was pseudostratified ciliated columnar. The populations of submucosal glands were higher in the magnum than other segments and comparatively more in amount in hyline chicken. The distributions of sperm host glands were noted in the lamina propria of the vagina. Different lines of chicken showed differences in the oviductal histoarchitecture and can be important indicators in reproduction.
Keywords: Histomorphology, oviduct, chicken, mucosal folds, glands
M N Hossain, M M Mia, M A Baset and M M H Khan
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2016, Volume 3, Number 2; Pages: 159-172
This in vitro experiment was aimed to estimate the amount of methane emission and degradability of different types of roughage and concentrate feed from the crossbred dairy cows. Ten feed ingredients were used in this experiment; rice straw (Oryza sativa), napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and german grass (Echinochloa polystachya) were grouped as roughages and rice polish (Oryza sativa), wheat bran (Triticum aestivum) and broken rice (Oryza sativa) as energy rich concentrates and red lentil (Lens culinaris), grass pea (Lathyrus sativus), mung bean (Vigna radiata) and mustard oil cake (Brassica nigra) as protein rich concentrates according to their nutrient composition. Rumen fluids from 3 crossbred dairy cows (Local×Holstein Friesian) with average body weight of 300±20 kg were collected from them just after slaughtering. Buffered rumen fluid was incubated at 39±0.5°C temperature. A completely randomize design was followed to assess the in vitro degradability after 72 h incubation, gas production at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 h and methane emission at 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation. Significant differences were observed (P<0.001) among the in vitro dry matter degradability (IVDMD), in vitro organic matter degradability (IVOMD), gas and methane production. Among the roughages IVDMD and methane production was significantly higher (P<0.001) in german grass (72.08% and 110.56 ml g-1 DM) and lower in rich straw (42.66% and 12.45 ml g-1 DM) while among the energy rich concentrates they were significantly higher (P<0.001) in broken rice (83.72% and 76.33 ml g-1 DM) and lower in rich polish (38.87% and 23.56 ml g-1 DM). Beside this significantly higher (P<0.001) IVDMD and methane emission were observed in Grass peas (87.49% and 54.11 ml g-1 DM) and were lower mustard oil cake (67.89% and 49.78 ml g-1 DM) among the protein rich concentrates. Methane emission was negatively correlated with the level of crude protein and ether extract and was positively correlated with the level of nitrogen-free extract. It may be concluded that nitrogen-free extract plays important role in increasing methane emission from crossbred dairy cows whereas crude fiber and ether extract plays important role to abate.
Keywords: in vitro, feed ingredients, methane emission, dairy cows
M S A Talucder, M M Haque and D Saha
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2016, Volume 3, Number 2; Pages: 149-157
Investigating present status of agar (Aquilaria malaccensis) cultivation in Bangladesh is necessary for sustainable economic development. The objective of this study was to document the existing agar cultivation technology especially modern technique for propagation and agarwood formation as well as potentiality as agroforestry component in Bangladesh compared to global standard. The paper was based on literature review and field experiences from Sylhet and Moulvibazar districts of Bangladesh. Since many research works were done on these issues but all are not available to the public in a systematic manner to date. This review study revealed that there was no modern artificial wounding technique available rather than conventional nailing technique, which was major reason behind the low quality and quantity of agarwood production in Bangladesh. This review paper also reported the latest potential technique of agarwood formation namely CA kits (Cultivated Agarwood Kits). In addition, agar is reported as potential agroforestry component in Bangladesh for its edaphic and climatic factors. There was no other modern technique of propagation except conventional propagation by seed in Bangladesh. Introduction of modern propagation and wounding technology eventually would help to achieve the SDGs through its all three dimensions (economic, environmental and social). This high valued crop would benefit rural people and contribute greatly to the economy of the region.
Keywords: Agar, propagation, induction technique, agroforestry
M M H Khan, and A S Chaudhry
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2016, Volume 3, Number 1; Pages: 139-147
This paper includes three studies. In the first study, different types of bacterial population (total viable, cellulolytic, proteolytic, amylolytic and lypolytic) were counted from the rumen fluid (RF) of fistulated sheep. In the second study, total viable bacteria were counted from the (RF) following its individual incubation with five spices (cinnamon, cumin, coriander, turmeric and clove) for 48 h. In the third study, Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were considered from RF collected from sheep, after its in vitro incubation with rice straw in the presence and absence of spices for 120 h. Total viable counts were highest in the presence of cumin and lowest in the presence of cinnamon. The existence of Gram negative bacteria was increased but Gram positive bacteria was decreased in the presence of cumin, coriander and turmeric. Reduction of Gram positive bacteria representing methanogens in these three spices suggested that these could be used as additives to reduce methane production in ruminants.
Keywords: Spices, degradability, bacterial acount, methane production, Gram positive bacteria
M M H Khan, and A S Chaudhry
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2016, Volume 3, Number 1; Pages: 129-138
This paper reports the in vitro degradability and fermentation of different amounts (0.25, 0.5 and 1 g 100 ml-1 of rumen fluid = RF) of five spices (cinnamon, cumin, coriander, turmeric and clove) alone or with rice straw during different incubation times. The main effects of spices were also considered for gas and methane production. Significant (P<0.001) differences were observed in in vitro dry matter degradability (IVD) and in vitro organic matter degradability (IVOMD) of spices and pH, ammonia and volatile fatty acids (VFA) of RF at 48 and 144 h. The IVD, IVOMD, ammonia and VFA were highest for cumin and lowest for cinnamon. IVD, IVOMD and pH were higher when smaller amount (0.25 g 100 ml-1) of spices were used (P<0.001). All the spices increased IVD, IVOMD, pH, ammonia and VFA at longer incubation time. The pH was lowest in turmeric. While VFA were greater for the larger amount of all spices, ammonia was greater for the larger amounts of only cumin and coriander. The molar proportion of acetic acid was lowest for turmeric. The gas and methane production was higher for the low amounts of spices where total gas volume was highest in turmeric and lowest in cinnamon (P<0.05).
Keywords: Spices, degradability, ammonia, gas production, methane production
S P Ritu, T P Tuong and S U Talukder
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2016, Volume 3, Number 1; Pages: 121-128
Due to lack of fresh water in the dry season, most of the agricultural land in the coastal zone of Bangladesh remain single cropped with a low yield potential. This study aimed to develop a double rice cropping system with an aus-aman crop. Thus experiment was carried out in 2009 with the hypothesis that (i) late transplanting might secure good aus establishment compared to dry seeded aus and (ii) high yield of late planted aman can be maintained using a suitable photoperiod sensitive variety (BRRI dhan46) than photoperiod insensitive (BRRI dhan49) one. Treatments were two aus establishment methods (M1 = dry seeded, M2 = transplanted), two aus seeding dates (D1 = 30 April, D2 = 11 May), and two aman varieties (V1 = sensitive and V2 = insensitive to photoperiod), two seeding dates (D1 = 5 August, D2 = 10 August) established 10 days after aus harvest. Dry seeded aus had similar yield for both late April and early May sowings (4.7 t ha-1), but yield of late sown and transplanted aus had lower yield (3.5 t ha-1) due to submergence between flowering and the start of grain filling, while yield of late sown dry seeded aus was not affected as the crop was more advanced at the time of flooding. For aman rice, BRRI dhan49 had a higher yield (4.5 – 4.8 t ha-1) than BRRI dhan46 (4.2 – 4.4 t ha-1) for both establishment dates. Thus, establishment of a short duration aus rice at the end of April, followed by a medium duration photoperiod insensitive aman variety, it is possible to produce 8 – 9 t ha-1 yr-1 in moderately saline coastal zones.
Keywords: Establishment method, photoperiod sensitivity, cropping intensity
S P Ritu, T P Tuong and S U Talukder
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2016, Volume 3, Number 1; Pages: 113-120
Keywords: ORYZA2000 crop model, coastal area, aus rice, irrigation management
S P Ritu, T P Tuong and S U Talukder
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2016, Volume 3, Number 1; Pages: 101-112
Agricultural land in coastal zone of Bangladesh grows a low yielding single rice crop (aman) during the rainy season, due to lack of fresh water in dry season. To develop a double rice cropping system with an aus crop grown at the onset of the rainy season followed by an aman crop, a field experiment was conducted during 2006 – 2008 at Batiaghata in Khulna, to test the hypothesis that high system productivity can be achieved by: (i) dry seeding a short-duration aus variety and applying supplemental irrigation during establishment, and (iii) transplanting a high-yielding aman variety after harvest of the aus crop. Treatments in aus season included three water regimes, i.e., rainfed (I1); supplemental irrigation (I2), full irrigation (I3) and three sowing dates viz. early-April (D1), mid-April (D2), late-April (D3). In aman season, two high yielding varieties namely BR11 and BRRI dhan53 were evaluated. Yields with full and supplemental irrigation were comparable (4 t ha-1) and were greater than those of fully rainfed aus (2 t ha-1) when there were dry spells after sowing. Supplemental irrigation required much less irrigation water (100 – 200 mm) than full irrigation (660 – 1042 mm) but had similar yield. The average incremental irrigation water productivity varied from 0 to 1.3 kg grain ha-1 mm-1. Delayed planting of aman, decreased the growth duration of BRRI dhan53 and reducing yield compared to yield of earlier transplanting. The duration of BR11 was less affected by sowing date and had similar yield level (> 4 t ha-1) to that of BRRI dhan53 with early April sowing. Under favorable conditions, aus-aman cropping system yield ranged from 8.0 to t ha-1 yr-1.
Keywords: Cropping system, direct seeding, dry seeding