TEC Mishu1, M Aktaruzzaman1*, MS Islam1, MA Hossain1
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2022, Volume 9, Number 1; Pages: 1-9
We conducted a study to evaluate the effect of tulsi leaf (Ocimum sanctum) extract supplementation in drinking water as a growth promoter in the broiler. A total of 50 Cobb-500 broiler chicks (day-old) were purchased from a local hatchery (CP Bangladesh Co. Ltd). After seven days of acclimatization, chicks were randomly divided into two groups:- T, (n=25) and T, (n=25). Group T, was kept as a control and untreated. Group T; was supplemented with tulsi leaf extracts 0.02% with tap water. Weekly observations were recorded for live body weight gain up to 4 weeks and hematological tests were performed at the broiler’s 21% and 28″ day’s age. The initial body weight of groups To and T, on 1% day of this experiment were 48.43+0.61 g and 47.77+0.22 g, respectively, and after the 28″ day of the experiment, final body weights were 1386.62+18.36 g, and 1476.25+12.21 g, respectively and net profit per broiler was Tk. 18.65 and Tk. 23.09, respectively. The live body weight of the treatment group (T,) was increased significantly (p<0.01) than that of the control group (To). The treatment group T, was recorded statistically significant (at 5% level) increased (6.935) live body weight than that of control group To. The hematological parameters total erythrocyte count (TEC), packed cell volume (PCV), and hemoglobin (Hb) estimation value of the treatment group was increased significantly (p<0.01), and total leukocyte count (TLC) was increased significantly (p<0.05). In contrast, hemoglobin (Fb) estimation showed significant difference from the control group. The results suggest that a broiler supplemented with 0.02% tulsi leaf extract could achieve better growth performance.
Keywords: Tulsi leaf extract, Growth performance, Hematological parameters, Cost-benefit analysis in broiler
R Das1, B Paul2 and S Sarkar2
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2022, Volume 9, Number 1; Pages: 11-18
One of the most common problems in poultry farms in Bangladesh is salmonella. This discase is resistant to a wide variety of antibiotics because of inappropriate dosages and the indiscriminate use of antimicrobial drugs. For the isolation and identification of salmonella, droppings from a total of 55 wild birds were examined with the cultural examination, Gram’s Staining (GS), motility and biochemical test in the microbiology lab of Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet, Bangladesh, during the period January 2011 to June 2012. Salmonella was isolated from 31 samples. The overall prevalence was 56.33%. Commercial antibiotic discs were used for the in vitro antibiotic sensitivity test of isolated Salmonella spp. The antibiogram study illustrated that the isolates were highly sensitive to Cefiriaxone (CT), Cephalexine (CE), and Nalidixic Acid (NA), moderately sensitive to Gentamycin (G), Chloramphenicol (CP), and Amoxicillin (A) and resistant to Erythromycin (E), Bacitracin (B), and Penicillin (P). Transmission of salmonella from wild to domestic bird frequently happens and antibiotic resistant salmonella becomes a threat to public health.
Keywords: Salmonella, Isolation, Avian, and Antibiotic.
B Paul, S Sarkar, A Paul, MM Parvej and GN Adhikary*
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2022, Volume 9, Number 1; Pages: 19-26
The effects of unilateral and bilateral vasectomy on the seminal characteristics, testosterone concentrations, and testicular parameters following castration were assessed. Immediately after vasectomy, the ejaculate volume declined in all vasectomized bucks, which was also found to increase afterward, irrespective of the groups. Concerning the color, the ejaculate was very light yellow in each vasectomized buck, while the typical milky appearance of the ejaculate was found in the control animals. The individual sperm motility was found to vary from 70.33% to 76.67% in the studied bucks, irrespective of the group before vasectomy. Following seven days of vasectomy, the sperm motility in unilaterally vasectomized bucks reduced to around 50%, whereas no individual sperm motility in all bilaterally vasectomized groups. In the plasmatic concentrations of testosterone, a marked decrease (p < 0.01) was observed in all the males from 2 to 6 weeks after the vasectomy. However, a gradual rise in the plasma levels of testosterone was also observed from 8 to 12 weeks after surgery. Before vasectomy, all bucks showed attraction to the goats ejaculating in the artificial vagina in a short time (<15-20 s) after contact with the goat in heat. From 10 weeks after vasectomy until the end of the experiment, the same bucks (four of the vasectomized and the control ones) that showed a recovery of the plasma levels of testosterone demonstrated normal libido and manifested attraction to the goats in heat. After 16 weeks of rearing, the bucks were subjected to castration to evaluate the testes and the epididymis. In the unilaterally vasectomized bucks, the vasectomized side was larger than the contra-lateral part and showed a nodule containing creamy material. The bilaterally vasectomized testis and epididymis were noticed to have more extensive morphology. These results demonstrate that vasectomy has little effect on the morphologic characteristics of the testis and epididymis. Though vasectomy did not affect the plasmatic concentrations of testosterone, it considerably affected the seminal parameters. Thereby, vasectomy can be used to develop teaser buck in the breed development program.
Keywords: Vasectomy, seminal characteristics, testosterone concentrations, testicular parameters teaser buck
T Akter, HK Tamanna, MZ Akhi, B Debnath and MS Islam*
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2022, Volume 9, Number 1; Pages: 27-33
An experiment was conducted at the experimental field of the Horticulture Department, Sylhet Agricultural University, during the summer season on 15 May 2017 to evaluate three photo-insensitive (summer) country bean genotypes viz., Sikribi sheem-1, Sikribi sheem-2, and SB003 under two different support systems viz, trellis and staking. This experiment was conducted in two factors randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. In the case of Sikribi sheem-2, minimum days (47.50) were required for the first flowering, followed by Sikribi sheem-1(49.66) and SB003 (50.00). All the genotypes required around 80 days to first green pod harvest. Sikribi sheem-1 produced the maximum number of pods plant-1 (211.5) followed by SB003 (187.0), while it was the lowest for Sikribi sheem-2 (168.0). The green pod yield of Sikribi sheem-1 (1.19 kg plant-1) and SB003 (1.05 kg plant-1) was significantly higher than that of Sikribi sheem-2 (0.69 kg plant-1). Considering support system, a higher number of pods plant-1 (194.55) was harvested from the plant grown under the staking system than the trellis system (183.11). In the case of an interaction effect, the highest number of pods plant-1 was recorded from the genotype Sikribi sheem-1 when grown under a staking support system (220.0), and the corresponding gross margin was 2424 taka/decimal while it was the lowest for Sikribi sheem-2 when grown in trellis support system (155.66) and the corresponding gross margin was 984 taka/decimal. So growers can ensure more profit (more than 2000 taka per decimal) by cultivating Sikribi sheem-1 during the summer season in the Sylhet region, followed by SB003.
Keywords: Photo-insensitive, trellis, staking system, pod yield per plant, genotypes
MA Islam*, MM Hasan and B Deb
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2022, Volume 9, Number 1; Pages: 35-43
A huge amount of land in the Sylhet region remains fallow after the harvest of T. Aman paddy between November and December. On those fallow lands, although sporadically, recently sunflower is grown by some farmers bringing them new hope to secure financial solvency by making good use of their abandoned lands. The study attempted to ass the attitude level of Sylhet district farmers toward sunflower cultivation and explore the relationship between selected characteristics of the farmers and their attitudes. The study was conducted in four unions of Fenchuganj upazila under Sylhet district. Data were collected from 50 sunflower farmers following simple random sampling from a list of 250 farmers using a pre-tested well-structured interview schedule from June 30 through July 30, 2020. A total of 18 statements reflecting cognitive, affective, conative and evaluation of sunflower cultivation were constructed to measure the attitude level of the farmers towards sunflower cultivation. A five-point rating scale containing strongly agree (4), agree (3), no opinion (2), disagree (1), and strongly disagree (0) was used to measure the attitude level of the farmers. Results revealed that the majority (68%) of the farmer had high favorable attitude towards sunflower cultivation, followed by 22% had medium favorable and only 10% had low favorable attitude. The correlation coefficient ‘r’ showed that the farmers’ education, annual family income, cosmopoliteness and use of communication media of the farmers had a positive significant relationship with their attitude while age, family size, farm size and organizational participation had not significant relationship with their attitude.
Keywords: Attitude, Sunflower, Cognitive, Affective, Conative, Evaluat
K Yasmin* and MA Kashem
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2022, Volume 9, Number 1; Pages: 45-50
An experiment was conducted at Sylhet Agricultural University, Bangladesh in 2017 to see the effect of lime and NPKS fertilizers on the growth and yield of Basella alba using acid soil. This pot experiment used six treatments viz. control, lime, NPKS, lime + NPKS, 75% NPKS and lime + 75% NPKS. The 30 kg amended (cowdung @ 5 t ha1) soils were filled into 46 cm2 earthen pots, and 3 healthy plants were used as test crop. The rate of urea-N, TSP-P, MoP-K, gypsum, and lime were 90, 18, 60, 15, and 3000 kg ha1 respectively. The lime, TSP-P, gypsum, and 1/3 of urea-N and 1⁄2 of MoP-K were applied as basal doses. The rest of the fertilizers were applied at 35 (1/3 of N and 1⁄2 of K) and 52 (1/3 of N) days after sowing (DAS). Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications used to arrange treatments in this study. The data were recorded at 35, 50, 65, and 80 DAS. The data was statistically analyzed using the R software for ANOVA, and means were compared with LSD values. Combined application of lime + NPKS responded significantly in almost all growth and yield parameters of B. alba. The highest and lowest yields were 809.34 and 468.27 g pot1 obtained from lime + NPKS and control, respectively. The treatments lime + 75% NPKS, NPKS and 75% NPKS showed the statistically identical result. Combined application of lime with fertilizers performed well due to the positive effect of lime with NPKS and reduction of soil acidity.
Keywords: Lime, inorganic fertilizer, soil acidity, B. alba
MH Sohel1* and MD Hossain2
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2022, Volume 9, Number 1; Pages: 51-56
An experiment was done at a farmer’s field in Barishal district to evaluate the comparative performance of one hybrid rice variety- Sorno balam, with four modern varictics BR 11, BRRI dhan 52, BRRI dhan75 and BRRI dhan 87 in Transplanted aman season of 2021. Hybrids and conventional rice varieties differed significantly among themselves to different parameters under study. The highest grain yield (6.40 t/ha) was recorded from the hybrid Sorno balam followed by BRRIdhan87 (5.23 t/ha) and the lowest in BRRI dhan 75 (4.20 t/ha). Further, hybrid Sorno balam produced the highest straw yield (8.7 t/ha), which varied significantly with all other varieties. Minimum days to first flowering 80.67 and maturity (114.33) were noticed in BRRIdhan75 followed by Sorno balam (115.67 and 153.33), respectively. The hybrid variety had a heavier grain weight (26.50 g) than the conventional varieties (21-25 g). It is noted that the hybrid variety maintained a distinct statistical edge over the conventional varieties regarding most of the parameters. Thus, the hybrid Sorno balam was found to be superior to modern varieties for transplanting in the aman season in the Barishal district of Bangladesh.
Keywords: Hybrid, Conventional varieties, Transplanted aman, Grain, Yield
MA Islam*, RP Poly, S Rahman and B Deb
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2022, Volume 9, Number 1; Pages: 57-63
Aman rice, a major cereal crop in Bangladesh, frequently encounters monsoon and late floods during the vegetative growth period in August-September. The crop cannot withstand if the flood water remains stagnant for more than 4 to 5 days. In this context, a variety named BRRI dhan52 evolved to grow in 2 to 3 weeks of submergence without losing significant yield. However, no systematic study has yet been ‘made regarding the performance of BRRI dhan52 in real situations. Thus, farmers’ perceived performance has been focused on the study, which was estimated based on responses against 30 different flood tolerant characteristics of BRRI dhan52 in a four-point scale of measurement. Findings reveal that the highest proportion (63.1 percent) of the farmers had moderately favorable perceptions, followed by 19.4 percent with low favorable perceptions and 17.5 percent with high favorable perceptions towards all the 30 characteristics. Out of which, the top five were: can tolerate sudden flood (PI=285), less photosensitive (P1=284), lodging tolerant (PT=284), produce more straw and more fodder (PI=283). Considering the mean values of PI it was found that the complexity related to the use of BRRI dhan52 technology was highly perceived as reflected by PI= 218, followed closely by compatibility of 215, trial ability by 206, relative advantage by 177, and operability by 172. It is also observed that education, family size, communication media, and attitude towards BRRI dhan52 showed significant positive relationship with their perception.
Keywords: Submergence, tolerant, BRRI dhan52, Aman rice
MA Islam*, A Hosen and S Debnath
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2022, Volume 9, Number 1; Pages: 65-69
The study was undertaken to determine the flood coping strategies practiced by the inhabitants of Haor farmers particularly the ultra-poor farmers. Data were collected from a randomly selected sample of 80 ultra-poor farmers of two villages Goyasi and Belkuna under Fenchuganj upazila of Sylhet district by using a pre-tested interview scheduled from 24 August 2017 through 3 October 2017. The study revealed that the ultra-poor’s flood coping strategies centered on six major issues: crop production, life security, livestock and poultry, housing and shelter, means of livelihood, health and sanitation. Cultivation of short-duration rice variety ranked top, followed by collecting good quality seedlings from the nursery, using tube-well water to avoid water borne diseases, and earthen up homestead area. On the other hand, keeping the children away from flood water ranked sixth. However, the co-efficient of correlation indicated that annual family income and training received had a significant relationship in flood coping strategies of the ultra-poor farmer.
Keywords: Flood coping strategy, Ultra-poor farmer, Haor
B K Goswami1, M A Kashem1, M A Aziz1 and T K Saha2*
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2022, Volume 9, Number 1; Pages: 71-79
The experiment was conducted at Bilpar village under the Saidergaon union of Chatok upazila of Sunamganj district from November 2016 to May 2017 to find out the effects of TSP fertilizer on the nutrient uptakes in boro rice and soil properties in haor areas. Two factors experiment- varieties: BRRI dhan29 and BRRI dhan58 and six TSP fertilizer levels: Fi- 85 kg TSP ha”! (Farmers’ practice), F,- 142 kg TSP ha”, Fs- 127 kg TSP ha”, F,- 112 kg TSP ha™ (BARC recommended dose), Fs- 97 kg TSP ha, Fq-82 kg TSP ha” were included in the experiment, which laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The grain, and straw nutrients (NPKS) were analyzed using standard ‘methods. Initial and post-harvest soil analyses were done for pH, organic matter, total nitrogen, available P, exchangeable K and available S. Between two rice varieties, BRRI dhan58 showed higher nutrient content and uptake in comparison compared to BRRI dhan29. TSP fertilizer significantly influenced nutrient concentration in grain and straw as well as nutrient uptakes. BARC recommended TSP fertilizer (TSP-112 kg ha™) helps to uptake nutrients (P) superiorly in grain and straw. The soil analyses showed that the nutrient contents in post-harvest soils were higher compared to the initial soil. The application of TSP fertilizer along with Urea, MoP and Gypsum increased total N, available P, K, and S contents in post-harvest soil. The result revealed that cultivation of BRRI dhan58 with 112 kg TSP ha (BARC recommended dose) was the best option for rice production and maintaining soil fertility.
Keywords: TSP, Rice, Soil fertility, Nutrient uptake
IJ Ema1, R Hasan1, MR Faruk2 and MM Islam2*
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2022, Volume 9, Number 1; Pages: 81-91
Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial microorganisms that dwell in the rhizospheric region and positively affect plants. In the present study, bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of healthy tomato plants, and their effects on plant growth and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Iycopersici were assayed. Sixteen isolates were obtained, among which five isolates, ERB4, ERBS, ERB12, ERB14, and ERB16, were capable of producing ammonia, IAA and phosphate solubilization. Meanwhile, they also showed in vitro antagonistic activities against F. oxysporum. The isolates were identified via morphology observation on selective and semi-selective media and 16S rRNA sequencing, ‘which were classified as Azotobacter sp., Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas stutzeri and Enterobacter cloacae. The present study demonstrates that these bacteria can act as PGPRs to stimulate plant growth and suppress plant pathogenic fungi. It is important to develop new biocontrol agents for Fusarium wilt of tomato.
Keywords: PGPR, TAA production, Phosphate solubilization, Pseudomonas strutzeri, Enterobacter cloacae
MA Rahman1, MJ Hossain2, SK Barman1*, GU Ahmed3, MM Alam1, KK Tikadar1
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2022, Volume 9, Number 1; Pages: 93-102
Shrimp farming is a fast-growing industry, considered one of the best export-carning products in the coastal communities of Bangladesh. In this study, we observed the seasonal variation of water quality parameters in shrimp farms, as well as assessed the uses and effectiveness of aqua medicines. Primary data were collected through face-to-face interviews with 42 shrimp farmers and 30 drug and chemical seller (he temperature varied from ~30 °C (during summer) to 15 °C (during winter), respectively. Dissolved oxygen (DO) levels recorded ranged from 3.5 mg/L to 6.0 mg/L in the study period. The pH remained stable from autumn to the rainy season, within 6.5 to 8 in all sites. Ammonia and nitrite concentrations were higher during the winter season. However, these values were lower before and after the winter. Seven categories of aqua medicines from 38 pharmaceutical companies were found to be used by the farmers. The effectiveness of the drugs and chemicals used by farmers to prepare ponds for increased growth rate and as a disinfectant ranged from 60 to 80% on average. Farmers used these aqua drugs and chemicals haphazardly and appeared to have little knowledge, awareness, and concern about their proper use and effectiveness. To overcome these problems, an effective and functional regulatory framework is required to monitor shrimp farms from the existing government institutions or authorities.
Keywords: Water quality parameters, aqua medicines, effectiveness, coastal region, Bangladesh
S Singha1*, MW Rahman1, MS Kabir1 and N Pal2
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2022, Volume 9, Number 1; Pages: 103-113
The key motivation of the study was to find out the process of social exclusion of resource-poor households (small, marginal, landless, and women farmers) in the study area of southern Bangladesh. The study adopted a qualitative approach, including case studies, focus group discussions, and key informant interviews to reveal the actual situation. A Fishbone diagram was adopted to represent the current social inclusion issues in the community. The study depicted that large affluent farmers were the protagonist in taking advantage of the capital-intensive agricultural intensification while resource-poor farmers were lagging behind. Polarization was visible between the rich and poor farmers at an increasing rate. Predominant factionalism and patron—client relations were observed in the power structure, but the encapsulation process was absent. Therefore, these issues constantly escalate socio-economic disparities pushing social exclusion with the initiation of agricultural intensification. Right-based awareness programs and livelihood improvement training should be promoted in the locality so that resource-poor farmers and the next generation can have benefited from these facilities.
Keywords: Social exclusion, Agricultural intensification, Patron-client relation, Factionalism, Fishbone diagram
M Islam and P Das
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2022, Volume 9, Number 1; Pages: 115-125
The study was carried out in Hakaluki haor to examine the effects of meteorological factors on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) dynamics. Remote sensing and GIS technique we to detect the spatiotemporal changes of NDVI in Hakaluki aor using multitemporal satellite images from Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8-OLT images from 2000 through 2019. The results from the spatiotemporal analysis at every five year interval showed that the value of NDVI decreased rapidly, so used the density of vegetation coverage was declining, and the water body was shrinking imperfectly. The resulting datasets from NDVI were compared with the meteorological parameter such as rainfall, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, and humidity to assess the impact of meteorological changes on it. Linear regression analysis model was done to identify the relationship of averaged meteorological factors as independent variables that could affect the averaged NDVI as the dependent variable at the study site. From the analysis of the linear regression model, it was found that there was a significant decrease in rainfall, with an increase in temperatures in conjunction with the decline of NDVI value. The results revealed that the NDVI value decreased with rainfall and humidity and had a negative correlation with rainfall and humidity, indicating that the vegetation growth was decreasing. The correlation between NDVI and maximum and minimum temperature was significantly positive, but there ‘was a negative correlation between rainfall and humidity. Overall this study illustrated the effectiveness of the NDVT approach for the change detection of area under the major changes of meteorological factors in Hakaluki kaor.
Keywords: Hakaluki haor, NDVI, GIS, Remote Sensing, Change detection, Landsat data, Meteorological factors.
M Islam*, AG Polash, F Akter and F Johra
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2022, Volume 9, Number 1; Pages: 127-136
The Earth’s surface is undergoing significant land use, and land cover (LULC) changes because of numerous socioeconomic activities and natural events. The study was carried out in Sylhet Sadar to examine land use and land cover changes from 1990 through 2020. To assess land use pattern, multi-temporal satellite imageries (Landsat 7 for the years 1990, 2000 and 2010) (Landsat 8 for the year of 2020) were obtained from USGS GLOVIS. Based on the prior knowledge and a reconnaissance survey, the study area was classified into four major LULC cl water bodies, urban area, vegetation, and agricultural land. Supervised classification-maximum likelihood algorithm and stratified random sampling were applied to detect the extent as well as the percentage of each LULC class and classification accuracy assessment, respectively. The overall accuracies for the classified images of 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2020 were 88.5 %, 90 %, 90.5 %, and 92.5 %, respectively. Three change detection analyses (1990-2000, 2000-2010 and 2010-2010) were done to detect the shifting process of different land use/land cover classes. The results of this study revealed both an increase and decrease in the different LULC classes over 30 years. The results showed rapid growth of urban area (127.52 km?) between 1990 and 2020, while the same periods witnessed a reduction of agricultural land (-57.82 km’) and vegetation (-84.08 km?).
Keywords: Land use, Land cover, Satellite image, Change detection, Sylhet Sadar
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2022, Volume 9, Number 1; Pages: Author guidelines
Keywords: Author guidelines