M Islam, A G Polash and S A Fahim
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2017, Volume 4, Number 2; Pages: 325-330
The present study was conducted to evaluate the groundwater quality at different locations in Sylhet district. The selected locations were Sylhet Agricultural University (SAU), Chowkideki, Tilagor, Golapgonj, South Surma and BADC pump at Daudpure. Temperature, pH, turbidity, total alkalinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), carbondioxide (CO2) and iron (Fe) were tested in the water quality laboratory of Sylhet Agricultural University and Leading University, Sylhet. Further water concentration data in the form of pH, turbidity, temperature, total alkalinity, carbon di oxide (CO2), iron (Fe), phosphate (PO4), nitrate (NO3), total hardness and total dissolved solids were collected from Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation (BADC). All the parameters were compared with laboratory tested samples and evaluated with Bangladesh water quality standard whether it is suitable or not. The tested quality parameters were found within the acceptable limit for irrigation and domestic purposes. At Golapgonj, the value of iron (2.01 mg l-1) was beyond the acceptable limit. Total alkalinity was found beyond permissible limit for both domestic and irrigation purpose at Daudpure (124 mg l-1) and Golapgonj (432 mg l-1), respectively. From quality point of view, groundwater is suitable for domestic and irrigation purposes except excessive iron presence in the well. A correlation matrix was done to find out the interrelationship among different water quality parameters. It is found that significant positive correlation holds among the water quality parameters. Therefore, it is suggested that the geologic stratification of this region should be thoroughly investigated before installing a tubewell for both domestic and irrigation purposes.
Keywords: Groundwater, quality parameters, iron, irrigation, Sylhet
M Islam and M Ahmed
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2017, Volume 4, Number 2; Pages: 315-324
Rivers carry water and nutrients to areas all around the earth and provide excellent food and habitat for different microorganisms and also important for livelihood resides in the bank of the river. With an ever-growing population demand for water and increasing climate uncertainty, there is pressing need for improved understanding of the underlying patterns of natural variability of water resources and consideration of their implications for water resource management and conservation. In this regard various climatic parameters such as rainfall, temperature, humidity etc. shown significant trends in river water level. Rainfall, which was regarded as a main influencing factor found to same in the changes occurred during the study period, except the month of April to July. The change of the maximum and minimum temperature over the year was also found almost constant. As the temperature increases, the rate of evaporation also increases which tends to decline the river stage. But, the highest rainfall has put a significant influence to maintain the evaporation loss. In respect of humidity, the higher relative humidity occurred during the months from May to July in every year. In the winter season, evaporation occurred at a higher rate as the relative humidity decreases. As a result, river water level declines but during monsoon the river stages regain its original phase. Climatic parameters played an important role on river water level. Studies on geological settings reveal that the sediment deposition during the Holocene passing through the Sylhet basin occurred at a higher subsiding rate. It may be concluded from the study that an optimum utilization of land and water resources by understanding the morphological process and subsequent prediction for any intervention in Sylhet basin for the development of lives and livelihoods in the area.
Keywords: River, climatic parameters, livelihood and Sylhet basin
E Sultana, M A Islam*, S M Sayem and M J Hossain
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2017, Volume 4, Number 2; Pages: 309-314
Higher education is playing a pivotal role to ensure the sustainable development of Bangladesh. Students’ academic performance is one of the main indicators of the quality of the academic institutions. It may depend on various personnel involved in academic, administrative and also their working environment. This study aims to identify the determinants of educational performance of the students of Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU). For measuring students’ academic performance, the stationarity test of the transition probability matrix of the grades of students in successive semesters was used. Step-wise multiple regression analysis was used to identify the determinants of students’ academic performance. The results reveal that the variation in student’s performance occurred over time (semester to semester). Students’ academic results were significantly associated with students’ study hours, and satisfaction about their results, degree and study environment. This study recommends for better student counseling system, improvement of curricula and teaching methods and proper maintenance of study environment.
Keywords: Student’s performance, stationarity test of transition probability matrix, coefficient of variation, multiple regression
S M S Hossain, J U Ahmed, M A Kashem and K Fatema
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2017, Volume 4, Number 2; Pages: 297-308
The study was conducted to evaluate the impact of farming system research on farmers’ income and livelihood status in Dekar haor of Sunamganj district. A total of 120 farmers (i.e., 60 project and 60 non-project) were selected as the sample of the study. Data were collected through direct interviewing and were analyzed with a combination of descriptive and econometric analyses. The average farm size was about 2.44 acre and 2.00 acre for project farmers and non-project farmers in the study areas, respectively. The average annual income was Tk. 51530 and Tk. 39936 for the project and non-project farmers, respectively. Based on paired t test, the average annual income of project farmer was increased by Tk. 48570 to Tk. 51530 per year which is statistically significant at 5% level. On the other hand, the income of non-project farmer was decreased. The access on natural capital, financial capital, human capital, social capital and physical capital for project farmers was increased by 25.53%, 43.33%, 68.87%, 52.5% and 33.35%, respectively due to the involvement with this farming system research which is not satisfactory in case of non-project farmers. Institutional credit is not available to the farmers of the study area due to complex process. Different commercial bank should make the credit system to the farmers of haor area. If these problems could be solved within a reasonable time, farmers could earn more monetary income which might help them to change their livelihood status ultimately.
Keywords: Farming system research, income, livelihood, haor
M S Islam and Afzal Hossain
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2017, Volume 4, Number 2; Pages: 289-296
The study was conducted to assess the effect of species ratio on growth and yield of major carp under polyculture system in perennial ponds for a period of 270 days in haor villages of Sunamganj district. The experiment was designated into three treatments (T1, T2 and T3) based on fish species ratio with three replications each. The fingerlings of Hypophthalmicthys molitrics, Gibelion catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus cirrhosus and Cyprinus carpio were stocked at a ratio of 10, 20, 40, 10, 20; 10, 15, 50, 15, 10, and 20, 10, 30, 20 and 20% in T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Stocked fishes were fed with rice bran and wheat flour at a decreasing rate of 10‒5% of body weight twice daily. Significant (p<0.05) differences in growth and production among treatments were observed. The highest weight gain of H. molitrics (512.89 g), G. catla (432.60 g), L. rohita (439.99 g), C. cirrhosus (346.46 g) and C. carpio (379.60 g) observed in T2. Production of H. molitrics (802.52‒1,477.00 kg ha–1), G. catla (605.25‒1,295.07 kg ha–1), L. rohita (1,880.01‒ 3,731.64 kg ha–1), C. cirrhosus (543.03‒951.42 kg ha–1) and C. carpio (686.66‒ 1,226.38 kg ha–1) varied in different treatments might be due to species ratio. Significantly (p<0.05) higher combined production of carp was obtained in T2 (7,444.98 kg ha–1) followed by T1 (6,625.27 kg ha–1) and T3 (6,007.40 kg ha–1). The highest net profit (BDT 213,695.03 ha–1) was also obtained in T2 than that of T1 (BDT 172,782.89 ha–1) and T3 (BDT 150,440.78 ha–1). Result of the study reveals that polyculture of carp like H. molitrics, G. catla, L. rohita, C. cirrhosus and C. carpio with stocking ratio of 10, 15, 50, 15, 10% in T2 is significantly higher from the viewpoint of growth and production. Therefore, the stocking ratio of 10, 15, 50, 15 and 10% in carp polyculture might be prescribed at farmers’ level in order to boost up fish production, uplift the nutritional status as well as accelerate the economic benefit of the farmers.
Keywords: Species ratio, growth, production and perennial ponds
M A Haq, A Baten, M M Hossain, M M H Khan and M M Hossain
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2017, Volume 4, Number 2; Pages: 281-287
Formalin contamination in edible fishes is strictly prohibited in Bangladesh. Although studies reported formalin contamination in many different commercial large table fish’s items but research pinpoints the formalin contamination in Small Indigenous Species (SIS) of fishes are scant. The present study was aimed at detecting the presence of formalin in SIS from different fish markets of Sylhet Sadar Upazila, Bangladesh. Five SIS taxa explicitly Coricaso borna (Kachki), Amblypharyngodon mola (Mola), Gudusia chapra (Chapila), Mystus tengra (Tengra), Puntius ticto (Tit punti) were purposely sampled during winter season (November to December, 2014) and summer (May to June, 2015) from eight fish markets for the detection of formalin content by using formalin testing kit developed by Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR). A total of 160 SIS individuals were collected, where 50 samples were contaminated with formalin in which 32 samples (40%) were in summer and 18 (22.5%) in the winter season. The rate of formaldehyde contamination was higher in C. soborna (100% both in summer and winter) followed by G. chapra (75% in summer and 12.5% in winter) and A. mola (50% in summer and 0% in winter) respectively. The formalin contamination was found statistically significant (P value <0.05) for Chapila and Mola in both season. It is, therefore, strongly recommended to ensure the institutional and government support and extension aids for improving the formalin testing methods, marketing systems and market facilities that can ensure a good quality fresh/safe fish in the markets for consumers.
Keywords: Formalin contamination, SIS, fish, season, food safety, consumers
T Akter, M M Hossain, R Begum, P P Barman and P K Debnath
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2017, Volume 4, Number 2; Pages: 267-279
As one of the major components of the blue economy and food security, coastal fisheries resources are vital for the sustainable economic development, livelihood security, management and conservation. However, concurrent comprehensive study on assessing abundance and composition of faunal diversity from coastal and marine waters are scant. A yearlong field inventory was conducted with the aim to assess the present status of available fish and shellfish taxa from marine and estuarine waters of South-Eastern coast explicitly Chittagong and Cox’s Bazar districts of Bangladesh. Both qualitative and quantitative data concerning the current perspectives of fishery resources to assessing the existing realities of species compositions were accounted. The collected taxa (specimens) were identified based on expert knowledge sharing, secondary document consultation and internationally practised appropriate methods. A total of 64 taxa including 54 finfish species under 27 families and 10 shellfish species under 2 families were recorded from the study area. On the basis of family-wise contribution Sciaenidae showed the highest percentage (11%) represented by 6 species, followed by Gobiidae (9%) and Scombridae (9%) both represented by 5 species, whereas Engnaulidae and Cynoglossidae scored (7%) with 4 species. For shellfish (shrimp) species Pennidae exhibited (80%) contribution represented by 8 species followed by Hippolytidae (20%) represented by 2 species. The specimens were then preserved in the laboratory as the first step towards setup of a Fish Museum in the Faculty of Fisheries, Sylhet Agricultural University (SAU) which may facilitate laboratory education for effective leaning and helpful to respected stakeholders including scientist, researchers, students and managers as well.
Keywords: Blue economy, biological diversity, conservation, fish museum, laboratory education
M G Rabbani, M A Kashem, M A Aziz and M S Hossain
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2017, Volume 4, Number 2; Pages: 261-266
The experiment was conducted at the Tajpur village of the Lakshmansree Union, Sunamganj Sadar Upazila and Rahimapur village of the Beheli union, Jamalgonj Upazila, Sunamganj district during November 2016 to May 2017 to see the effect of variety and MoP fertilizer on the growth of boro rice varieties in haor areas. Two varieties (BRRI dhan29 and BRRI dhan58) and six MoP fertilizer rates including 147, 137, 127 [BARC Fertilizer Recommendation Guide], 117, 107 and 82 kg ha-1 [Farmers’ practice dose (FP)]. Urea-TSP-CaS04-ZnS04 application followed as BARC Recommendation dose of 300-112-75-11 kg ha-1 Farmers’ practice (FP) where 165 and 82 kg ha-1 Urea and TSP were used. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Plant height of BRRI dhan58 (95.33 cm) was significantly higher than BRRI dhan29 (91.52 cm). Plant height also affected due to application of MoP fertilizer treatments at all stages of growth. Interaction effect of variety and MoP fertilizer showed significant variation at 45, 60 and 75 days after transplanting (DAT). At 75 days after transplanting (DAT), the higher number of tillers hill-1 (21.83) was produced by BRRI dhan29. But it was higher in BRRI dhan58 (14.20) at harvest. Higher number of effective tillers hill-1 (12.48) was produced by BRRI dhan58. The correlation values indicated that growth and yield parameters were positively significant except few non-yielding characters.
Keywords: Fertilizer, haor, varieties, boro season, growth parameter
R Afrin, M S A Talucder, G Paul and M S Uddin
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2017, Volume 4, Number 2; Pages: 251-260
Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) challenges to create zero hunger world through sustainably increasing agricultural productivity and income, reducing greenhouse gas emission, and building resilience to climate change. This paper documents the existing CSA practices adopted by farmers in Jaintapur upazila of Sylhet district. Data were collected through personal interview as well as focus group discussion from 102 randomly selected farmers from three unions of Jaintapur upazila during July to December 2017. We identified nineteen CSA practices that were practiced by the farmers in the study area. Those practices were perching, high yielding varieties, adjusting planting time, farm yard manure, green manuring, crop rotation, vermicomposting, cover crop, fallowing, rain water harvesting, AWD, improved livestock breed, community seed bed, USG, IPM, sorjon method, floating bed fodder, zero tillage and raised bed planting which were categorized into six pools. Finally, we proposed a three-tier up-scaling approach for the dissemination of fifteen potential CSA practices as short, medium and long term strategy for the study site which would be also applicable for other areas of Sylhet region.
Keywords: Climate-Smart Agricultural practices, up-scaling approach, Jointapur
M A S Hossain, A F M S Islam, M N H Miah and M M H Khan
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2017, Volume 4, Number 2; Pages: 239-250
Selection of suitable genotypes of sweetpotato for piedmont soil on the basis of morph physiological variability and yield attributes was conducted during November 2015 to April 2016. Nine genotypes viz. Local-1, Local-2, Local-5, Local-8, Exotic-1, Exotic-2, Exotic-3, Exotic-4 and BARI SP-4 were studied under field conditions at Sylhet Agricultural University Farm, Sylhet following Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Dry mass production and its partitioning during different growth stages and yields were evaluated. Results revealed that leaf dry weight increased rapidly from 60 to 105 days after planting (DAP), vine dry weight from 60 to 150 DAP and storage roots from 90 to 135 DAP. Initially dry matter partitioning into leaves, vines and fibrous roots were higher. The flows of dry matter translocation to the organizing plant parts continued to 90 DAP and thereafter dry matter translocation flow moved to the storage roots rapidly until 120 DAP. Dry matter content (%) of storage roots increased with plant age. Exotic-4, Exotic-2 had the highest dry matter content. Among the local genotypes, Local-8 had more dry matter content. Local-1, Local-8, Local-2, BARI SP-4 had the greater bulking rate from 105 – 120 DAP while Exotic-2 and Exotic-3 had from 120 – 135 DAP. Local-1 and Local-8 had greater harvest index at 120 DAP while Local-2 at 135 DAP and Exotic-3 at 150 DAP. Therefore life span of sweetpotato from 120 to 135 DAP may be important for breeding works. Harvesting stage of Local-1 and Local-8 may be 135 DAP while Exotic-3 and Local-2 may be 150 DAP. The highest yield was in Local-1 (44.06 t ha-1) followed by Local-8 (38. 82 t ha-1). Exotic-4, Exotic-3 and Local-2 contained higher total soluble solids (Brix %) from 12-14. It can be concluded that Local-1 and Local-8 may be suitable for Khadimnagor soil of Northern and Eastern Piedmont plains for higher yield. In addition Local-2, Exotic-3 showed interest for future investigation.
Keywords: Dry matter partitioning, piedmont soil, genotype, harvest index, total soluble solids
S Sarker, M N Islam, S D Shawon, D Chowdhury
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2017, Volume 4, Number 2; Pages: 233-238
An experiment was conducted in the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet, Bangladesh during the period from January to December 2013 to investigate the performance of mungbean varieties viz., BARI Mung-5 (V2) and BARI Mung-6 (V1) as influenced by sowing dates from January (S1) to December (S12). The experiment was conducted in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications assigning the sowing dates and varieties on the plots. Unit plot size was 10 m2 (4.0 m × 2.5 m) with a plant spacing of 30 cm × 10 cm. On an average about 60 days after sowing (DAS) mungbean pods were harvested two times within 10 (ten) days interval for each of the sowing dates. The results of the experiment showed that variety had no significant influence but sowing date and their interaction exerted significant influence on the yield and yield contributing characters of mungbean including plant m-2, number of branches plant-1, number of pods plant-1, number of seeds pod-1, pod length, 1000 seed weight, grain yield, stover yield and harvest index. BARI Mung-6 produced higher yield and yield contributing characters compared to BARI Mung-5. The highest seed yield 693.1 kg ha-1 was obtained from 20 March sowing and the lowest seed yield 196.1 kg ha-1 was obtained from 05 June sowing (S6). It was also found that, both of the varieties gave highest yield on 20 March sowing (S3) and also indicated that yield and yield attributing characters of mungbean were affected for delayed sowing from 20 March. It may be recommend that in Sylhet the mungbean could be cultivated in the month of March, April, June, July and September on the other hand, it should not be cultivated in the month of January, February, November and December due to unavailability of rainfall or moisture and May, August and October for excessive rainfall.
Keywords: Mungbean, variety, sowing dates
M Ehsanullah1, M A Maleque, A F M Saiful Islam and M A H L Bhuiyan
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2017, Volume 4, Number 2; Pages: 227-232
An attempt was made to explore the incidence of lemon butterfly larva in the orchards and nurseries of Jara lemon, Mandarin and Sweet orange in Jaintapur, Sylhet during May to October 2014. At host plant level, citrus orchards were selected from Citrus Research Station (CRS), Dowdic, Bagerkhal, Lamashampur and Utlarpar village of Jaintapur upazila. In case of orchard, leaf infestation of lemon butterfly larva was recorded from north-facing, south-facing, east-facing, west-facing and central canopy. The maximum leaf infestation was recorded from north-facing canopy of Sweet orange (28.33%), Mandarin (26.56%) and Jara lemon (12.89%). The minimum leaf infestation was recorded from east-facing canopy of Jara lemon (8.47%), Mandarin (20.16%) and Sweet orange (2018%). At landscape level, the highest leaf infestation was recorded in Mandarin (24.69%) and Sweet orange (27.89%) of Bagerkhal village. The lowest leaf infestation (20.16%) was recorded in Mandarin orchard of CRS. Larval infestation on Jara lemon, Mandarin and Sweet orange leaves was low in May and gradually increased up to October. The seasonal fluctuation pattern suggests that pest management measures need to be adopted during new flushes to keep the pest attack below economic injury level. In case of nurseries at CRS only, infested seedlings of Jara lemon, Mandarin and Sweet orange were sampled at 15 days after grafting (DAG), 30 DAG, 45 DAG and 60 DAG from 2.0 m × 2.0 m quadrat. At 60 DAG, the highest infestation was recorded in Jara lemon (57.5%), Mandarin (70.0%) and Sweet orange (82.5%). At 15 DAG, the lowest infestation was recorded in Jara lemon (5.0 %), Mandarin (12.5%) and Sweet orange (20.0%). Seedling infestation rapidly increased up to 30 DAG and gradually increased up to 60 DAG. The larval incidence pattern on seedlings indicates that proper management techniques need to be undertaken at 15 DAG when seedlings are at very early stage and larval attack just starts in the nursery.
Keywords: Jara lemon, Mandarin, sweet orange, host preference
A K M A Hoque, Q M Ahmed, M M Rahman, N Mohammad and M S Islam
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2017, Volume 4, Number 2; Pages: 221-225
The experiment was conducted to evaluate lime germplasm at the research field of Regional Horticulture Research Station of Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Shibpur, Narsingdi with five lime germplasm which all are two years old vegetative sapling. Significant variation was observed in case of growth, yield contributing characters, yield and fruit quality of the germplasm studied. The highest plant height (2.45 m), base girth (0.13 m) and canopy spreading (1.78 1.67 m2) were noted from the germplasm CA Nar-001. On the other hand, the lowest plant height (1.18 m), base girth (0.10 m) and canopy spreading (1.32 1.37 m2) was noted in CA Nar-003. Branching density was dense in CA Nar-001 and CA Nar-003 germplasm but sparse in CA Nar-002 and good in CA Nar-004 and CA Nar-005. Among the germplasm CA Nar-001 was found to free from disease whereas the other lines suffered from canker. Leaf miner was common in case of all the germplasm. Fruit size was the highest in CA Nar-001 (6.42 4.72 cm2) followed by CA Nar-002 (5.31 4.67 cm2). Irrespective of germplasm pulp color was found white. But juicy content high and strong fruit aroma was found in CA Nar-001. The highest edible portion (61.12%) recorded in CA Nar-001 and TSS (7.18%) was noticed from CA Nar-004.
Keywords: Pulp, fruit aroma, segregation, variability
D Saha, O A Fakir, S Mondal, and R C Ghosh
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2017, Volume 4, Number 2; Pages: 213-220
Organic fertilizer is a major limiting factor in crop production, especially for vegetables during the winter season in Bangladesh. Recently, an experiment was conducted at ARS, BARI, Satkhira on three types of organic fertilizer (OF) like OF from Co-compost (Faecal Sludge and Municipal Solid Waste), OF from earthworm compost (Vermicompost) and OF from cowdung whereas chemical fertilizer were applied as control treatment. Now a day’s farmers are cultivating tomato in saline areas and normally they do not use any compost fertilizers at their field as an organic fertilizer, therefore, it is urgent to find out the suitable combining dose of different types of compost and chemical fertilizers for maximizing the yield or know the best combination of chemical and organic fertilizer as well as the economic benefit from best treatment considering soil health. For this reason, this experiment was conducted in RCBD design with three dispersed replications in the winter season 2016-17 at ARS, Satkhira. Four fertilizer doses viz., T1 = 100% Chemical Fertilizer (Soil Test Based, FRG, 2012), T2 = Co-compost @ 2 t ha-1 with 50% recommended dose of chemical fertilizer (RDF), T3 = Vermicompost @ 2 t ha-1 with 50% RDF, T4= Cowdung @ 5 t ha-1; were set as the treatments. Tomato (BARI Tomato-14) was planted on 15 November 2016; during final land preparation following proper methodology. Only four irrigations were applied after 10, 25 and 35 and 45 days after plantation. It was found that treatment T2 gave the highest yield (45.94 t ha-1) followed by T3 (42.16 t ha-1), T1 (32.50 t ha-1) and T4 (32.50 t ha-1). From the economic study, it was found that higher income obtained from using co-compost along with chemical fertilizer (198825 Tk. ha-1) followed by T3 (155025 Tk. ha-1), T1 (118025 Tk. ha-1) and T4 (190575 Tk. ha-1). Now, it is clear that 2 ton co-compost with 50% inorganic fertilizer from Recommended Dose of Fertilizer (RDF) gave the highest yield with economic benefit. Also soil salinity was recorded minimum in co-compost treated plot.
Keywords: Vermicompost, co-compost, cowdung, tomato, saline soil.
M A Aziz, M A Kashem, M N H Miah and A F M S Islam
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2017, Volume 4, Number 2; Pages: 207-212
Pot experiments were conducted at the net house of Department of Soil Science, Sylhet Agricultural University campus, Sylhet during the period from November 2015 to May 2016 and November 2016 to May 2017 to find out the effect of fertilizer on the growth, yield and yield contributing characters of fine boro rice varieties. Two varieties (BRRI dhan50 and BRRI dhan63) and two fertilizer treatments (NPKSZn recommendation and 50% of NPKSZn recommendation) were included in the experiment. The recommended fertilizer dose was NPKSZn @ 138-22.4-63.5-13.5-1.3 kg ha-1. The experiment was laid out in a two factors Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications and continued for consecutive two years. During 2015-16 the tallest plant (70.65 cm) and the higher no. of tillers hill-1 (13.73) was produced by BRRI dhan63 but during 2016-17 the higher no. of tillers hill-1 (15.54) was produced by BRRI dhan63. The tallest plant (70.86 cm and 57.67 cm) and the highest no. of tillers hill-1 (14.11 and 20.06) was produced due to application of NPKSZn as per recommendation. The higher grain yield of 39.20 g pot–1 and 78.21 g pot–1 and straw yield of 66.86 g pot–1 and 95.18 g pot–1 were recorded from the variety BRRI dhan63. The grain yield was significantly affected due to fertilizer application. The lower grain yield of 41.58 g pot-1 and 56.68 g pot-1 were observed in the NPKSZn fertilizers as 50% of recommendation. The higher grain yield 48.02 g pot-1 and 86.00 g pot-1 were recorded in NPKSZn due to recommended fertilizer application. The highest grain yield was also obtained due to effect of in the interaction of BRRI dhan63 with application of recommended NPKSZn fertilizer.
Keywords: Fertilizer, growth, yield and fine rice
K H Alam, M K Ali, M H Rashid and A H M M Haque
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2017, Volume 4, Number 2; Pages: 199-205
A research work was carried out with a view to evaluate lentil (Lens culinaris) varieties at different sowing dates from October 25 to December 6 against Stemphylium botryosum in Bangladesh during winter season of 2012-2013.Two lentil varieties viz., BARI Masur-1 and BARI Masur-7 were evaluated at seven different sowing dates viz., October 25, November 1, November 8, November 15, November 22, November 29 and December 6 in RCB design with three replications. Significant differences were found in percent disease incidence for sowing dates and varieties. The highest disease incidence (72.50%) was recorded from the plants grown from October 25 sowing which was statistically identical to that of November 1 (63.5%), November 15 (62.17%) and November 22 (62.17%). However, disease incidence was drastically reduced at November 29 (42.17%) and December 6 (30.83%) sowings. The variety BARI Masur-1 was found more sensitive (64.0%) to that of BARI Masur-7 (47.0%) to stemphylium disease. The average highest seed yield was obtained from November 8 sowing (1200 kg ha-1) which was statistically identical to that of November 15 sowing (1156 kg ha-1). Between two varieties, BARI Masur-7 was more productive (1131 kg ha-1) than that of BARI Masur-1 (789 kg ha-1). The maximum seed yield ha-1 (1399 kg) was achieved from BARI Masur-7 when grown from November 8 sowing followed by November 15 sowing (1314 kg ha-1) by the same variety indicating first fortnight of November might be more productive for BARI Masur-7.
Keywords: Lentil, Lens culinaris, Stemphylium blight, sowing dates
M A S Hossain, M J Miah, H Akter and M F Islam
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2017, Volume 4, Number 2; Pages: 191-198
A field experiment was carried out on Chandragonj soil group of AEZ-17 at Gabua, Noakhali to conserve soil fertility through integrated nutrient management practices during November 2012 to April 2013 under integrated nutrient management practices. Cowpea cv. Bari Fallon-1 was cultivated under six fertilizer management practices viz. soil test based chemical fertilizer dose (T1), chemical fertilizer along with cow dung @ 5 t ha-1 (T2), chemical fertilizer along with dhaincha @ 0.6 t ha-1 (T3), chemical fertilizer along with bio-fertilizer inoculums @ 1.6 t ha-1 (T4), farmer’s practice (T5), and control (T6). The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Results was revealed that plant height increased up to 120 days after sowing (DAS) and the highest plant height was found in T4, T2 and T1 practices, followed by T3. The highest branches plant-1 was found in T2, T1, and T3 followed by T4. The highest effective plants plot-1 were found in T3 followed T2 and T6. The nodule numbers plant-1 increased from 45 DAS to 75 DAS and then declined up to 105 DAS where nodule numbers of the T2, T3 and T4 were similar. The highest total fresh weight was found in T4 and T2 practices, whereas the highest total dry matter (TDM) was in T2, followed by T3 and T4 approaches. T5 practice allocated the maximum dry matter into leaves and roots, T2 and T3 allocated into stem, whereas T1, T2 and T4 allocated statistically similar amount of dry matter into pod. The longest pod was in T1 and T4 practices followed by T3 and T2 practices. The highest number of pods plant-1 was in T4 practice followed by T3; while the highest number of seeds pod-1 were in T3, followed by T4 practice. The maximum seed weight plant-1 was in T4, followed by T1, T2, T3 and T6. The highest thousand seed weight was in T1 practice. The highest seed-pod ratio percentage was in T4 and the lowest ratio was in T5. The maximum seed dry weight as well as shoot dry weight plot-1 was in T2, followed by T3. The highest seed-shoot ratio was achieved in T1, followed by T4 and the lowest seed-shoot ratio was found in T5. The highest seed yield was obtained from T3 followed by T2 and T4. Prior to the experiment, total N and available P was below to the critical limit, whereas after conduction of the experiment all of nutrient elements studied was found in increased amount. Results revealed that chemical fertilizer along with dhaincha (Sesbania esculenta) @ 0.6 t ha-1 showed the best seed yield (2.445 t ha-1). Soil test based chemical fertilizer dose and IPNS practices improved the fertility of the soils than farmer’s practice and control. Chemical fertilizer along with cowdung @ 5 t ha-1 practice improved the Zn status of the soil than other practices.
Keywords: Biological nitrogen fixation, fallon, integrated nutrient management system, biofertilizer inoculums, soil fertility conservation
A A Farooq, M N Alam and A M Akanda
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2017, Volume 4, Number 2; Pages: 179-190
An attempt was made to evaluate the impact of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV) on root depth, fresh root weight, dry root weight plant-1 and yield of twenty tomato varieties namely BARI Tomato-1, BARI Tomato-2, BARI Tomato-3, BARI Tomato-4, BARI Tomato-5, BARI Tomato-6, BARI Tomato-7, BARI Tomato-8, BARI Tomato-9, BARI Tomato-10, BARI Tomato-11, BARI Tomato-12, BARI Tomato-13, BARI Tomato-14, Roma VF T-311, Unnayan F1, Udayan F1, Rio Grande, Tidy and Digonta. The study was conducted at Amtoli Upazilla in Barguna district under the AEZ 18 in Bangladesh during winter season of 2008-09. BARI-T2 showed the highest (45.19%) reduction of root depth and the lowest (30.18%) reduction was recorded in Digonta. The percent reduction of fresh root weight plant-1 was highest (46.94%) in BARI-T1 and lowest (28.11%) in Rio Grande. The percent reduction of dry root weight plant-1 was lowest (32.73%) in BARI-T11 and highest (44.12%) in Roma VF. The fruit yield reduction was observed higher due to early infection (67-87%) followed by mid (40-56%) and late infection (20-29%) stages in all the varieties. The highest fruit yield reduction was obtained in BARI-T2 at early stage of infection and the lowest in BARI-T10 at late infection stage. The reduction of fruit yield plant-1 was ranged from 44.10-55.68% depending on tomato varieties. The highest fruit yield reduction was recorded in BARI-T2, while the lowest in BARI-T12 due to TSWV infection
Keywords: Tomato spotted wilt virus, tomato, root, impact
M Islam, M M Rahman and M M R Howlader
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2917, Volume 4, Number 2; Pages: 173-178
The research work was conducted to evaluate the effects of enzyme and protein supplementation on growth performance and hematological parameters in broiler chickens. A total of 80 (15 days old) broiler chicks were randomly divided into four groups (group A, B, C and D). Group A was considered as control, fed with commercial broiler ration, group B supplemented with protein (60% protein concentrate @ 10% with commercial ration), group C supplemented with an enzyme (Alquerzim (@ 1 g l-1 drinking water), and group D supplemented with both enzyme and protein with the same dose, respectively. The experiment was continued for the period of 21 days. Results revealed that body weights were increased significantly (p<0.05) in all groups and highest body weights were recorded in Group D. Growth rate was highest at the 1st week (15-21 days of age) of experiment than the 2nd week (22-28 days of age) and no significant increase was observed in the last week (29-35 day of age). No significant differences were observed among the groups for PCV and TEC values. Hemoglobin (g dl-1) content increased significantly (p<0.05) and ESR decreased significantly (p<0.05) in group D. Therefore, the study reveals that combined supplementation of protein and enzyme showed better result over control in respect to body weight gain, growth rate and hematological parameters. The research work was conducted to evaluate the effects of enzyme and protein supplementation on growth performance and hematological parameters in broiler chickens. A total of 80 (15 days old) broiler chicks were randomly divided into four groups (group A, B, C and D). Group A was considered as control, fed with commercial broiler ration, group B supplemented with protein (60% protein concentrate @ 10% with commercial ration), group C supplemented with an enzyme (Alquerzim (@ 1 g l-1 drinking water), and group D supplemented with both enzyme and protein with the same dose, respectively. The experiment was continued for the period of 21 days. Results revealed that body weights were increased significantly (p<0.05) in all groups and highest body weights were recorded in Group D. Growth rate was highest at the 1st week (15-21 days of age) of experiment than the 2nd week (22-28 days of age) and no significant increase was observed in the last week (29-35 day of age). No significant differences were observed among the groups for PCV and TEC values. Hemoglobin (g dl-1) content increased significantly (p<0.05) and ESR decreased significantly (p<0.05) in group D. Therefore, the study reveals that combined supplementation of protein and enzyme showed better result over control in respect to body weight gain, growth rate and hematological parameters.
Keywords: Protein, enzyme, growth performance, hematological parameters, broiler chickens
P Mandal and M S Hossain
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2017, Volume 4, Number 2; Pages: 161-172
Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) is considered as dreaded in potato production by growers. Because of its wide host range and higher reproduction rate, major control using chemical nematicides gradually phased out due to growing concerns about environmental safety. Therefore, alternative techniques are essential to control them effectively. Control of root-knot nematode through agronomic management practices are very important aspects of organic movement in agriculture around the world. Till now, many plants were identified as antagonistic plants against plant parasitic nematodes. These plants reveal antagonistic nature through the production of secondary volatile and non-volatile exudates in their different parts viz., seed, leaf, flower, root and stem. A single technique may not effective enough to control root-knot nematode in potato as compared with sole chemical control measures. Consequently, combining two or more control techniques in a systemic way is very effective for root-knot nematode control. These techniques can establish confidence among the organic farmers to control root-knot nematode in order to increase yield of potato. This review is focusing some very important and effective agronomic techniques to control root-knot nematode in potato.
Keywords: Potato, root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne spp., agronomic control
M A Moli, S B Dabi, M Hasan and M M H Khan
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2017, Volume 4, Number 1; Pages: 149-159
Welding consisted of a hazardous process involving high temperatures and generating toxic fumes in the process. Therefore, welders were exposed to many occupational hazards. In the study, oxidative stress and DNA damage of 35 welders, in parallel with 25 control subjects working in Dhaka city was investigated. Oxidative stress level was measured by using five biochemical parameters such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), phospholipid hydroperoxide (PLHP), total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and vitamin C level in serum as well as DNA damage by alkaline comet assay. The welders were divided into two group; group I (≤10 years) and group II (>10 years) on the basis of the duration of welding (years). Serum TBARS level (8.0 ± 0.4 vs. 4.0 ± 0.2 nmol MDA equivalent ml-1) and PLHP level (9.0 ± 0.9 vs. 5.0 ± 0.2 nmol ml-1) significantly (p<0.001) increased in welders compared to control subjects. Levels of TAS (0.3 ± 0.02 vs. 0.7 ± 0.03 mmol l-1), SOD activity (74 ± 2.0 vs. 94 ± 0.6 inhibition rate %) and vitamin C (0.4 ± 0.04 vs. 0.8 ± 0.05 mg dl-1) significantly (p<0.001) decreased in welders compared to control subjects. Elevated levels of TBARS, PLHP with decreased levels of TAS, SOD activity and vitamin C indicated that the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was higher in welders than that of control subjects. These results suggested that the exposure of welder to welding generated oxidative stress. TBARS level of welders of Group II was significantly higher (p<0.01) than that of welders of Group I (8.0 ± 0.3 vs. 10 ± 0.8 nmol MDA equivalent ml-1). The mean TBARS, mean PLHP, mean SOD Activity, mean vitamin C values significantly differs among smoker control group (SC), non-smoker control group (NSC), smoker welder group (SW) and non-smoker welder group (NSW). This results also supported by the result of comet assay, which indicated that higher DNA damage occurs in welders than that of control subjects. It was found that 15.6% and 6.5% cell’s DNA were moderately and severely damaged in control subjects, whereas in the welders cell’s DNA were 28.2% moderately and 21.0% severely damaged, respectively. When duration of welding (years) was considered, a modest increased in oxidative stress and DNA damage was associated with the higher exposure to welding than that of lower exposure. The evaluated effect of smoking on oxidative stress and DNA damage among all subjects showed that smokers had more DNA damage than non-smokers. In this study correlation was found between oxidative stress and DNA damage of the welders with the duration of exposure of welding fumes and smoking habits of welders.
Keywords: Welders, oxidative stress, DNA damage, comet assay.
M A R Sarker, T Z Arifa, M A Hossain, F Ishaque and T N Chowdhury
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2017, Volume 4, Number 1; Pages: 143-148
Communities around the world rely on concrete as a safe, strong and simple building material. It is used in all types of construction; from domestic work to multi-storey office buildings and shopping complexes. Despite the common usage of concrete, few people are aware of the considerations involved in designing strong, durable and high quality concrete. For this reason, it is important to know the properties of plain concrete. The study was undertaken to know the tensile strength of plain concrete and to investigate the effect of bamboo fibre reinforcement in the concrete. For this purpose, cement, sand, brick chips, stone chips and bamboo fibre were used with different proportions (1:2:4, 1:2.5.5 and 1:3:6) to cast concrete cylinder. The concrete cylinders were tested by the compression testing machine to observe their strength after required curing. Highest strength was obtained for stone chips rather than brick chips. Further cylinders were casted with bamboo fibre. It was found that the tensile strength began to climb up and it was maximum for stone chips containing 1% bamboo fiber. Beyond 1% bamboo fibre the tensile strength tends to decrease for both the aggregates. Among three mix proportions, 1:2:4 was more significant as it showed the highest strength in all cases.
Keywords: Concrete, brick chips, stone chips, bamboo fibre, tensile strength.
S B Sanawar, M A Islam, S Majumder and F Misu
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2017, Volume 4, Number 1; Pages: 137-142
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is one of the complex issue which is difficult to measure despite its prevalence in the society. Obviously, the existence and its correlates vary from culture to culture. This study aims to investigate the situation of IPV in Bangladesh and identify its correlates using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) 2007. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to identify the correlates of IPV. Data analysis suggests that 50.84% of the respondents were exposed to any type of IPV during their lifetime. Multinomial logistic regression analysis reveals that the women having only boy child and also the women having both types of children (boy and girl) had more likelihood of being affected physically than the childless women when compared with no violence. Furthermore, the likelihood of sexual violence was more for the women having both types of children than the childless respondents. Non-Muslim women had more likelihood of being affected by all types of violence than the Muslim women. The rich women had more likelihood of being suffered by sexual violence than the poorest women. The likelihood of infliction by both physical and sexual violence among the poorest women was less than their counterparts when compared with no violence. The women who were the wives of farmers had more likelihood to suffer from sexual violence, and both physical and sexual violence than the women who were the wives of service holders and businessmen. The primary educated women had less likelihood to experience sexual violence than the uneducated women when compared with no violence. The wives of the primary educated partners had more likelihood to be tortured both physically and sexually than the wives of the uneducated partners.
Keywords: Intimate partner violence, multinomial logistic regression, demographic and health survey.
M M Begum, J K Saha, M A Rahman and M R Ahmed
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2017, Volume 4, Number 1; Pages: 129-136
The study assesses the profitability of potato cultivation in some selected areas of Sylhet district in Bangladesh. A total of 50 farmers were selected from different villages of Fenchugong upazila in Sylhet district. Both tabular and descriptive techniques were used to analyze the collected data. Average family size was 6.24 which was found to be higher in large farm followed by small and medium farms. On an average the dependency ratio was 3.22. The literacy in the study area was higher than that of national average of Bangladesh. Agriculture was found to be dominating occupation among the inhabitants. On an average 50% of the total income obtained from potato production. The annual savings of the sampled farmers was found to be higher in large farm followed by medium and small farm. On an average hectare-1 cost of production of potato was Tk. 1, 94,114. The average hectare-1 yield of potato was 17194 Kg. The highest yield was obtained by large farms (18291 kg ha-1) while it was the lowest in small farms (16804 kg ha-1). When all costs were taken into account the average net return was observed to be Tk. 81336. On an average BCR was the highest in large farms (1.68) appearing lowest in small farms (1.34). The study identified some major problems like nonavailability of quality seeds and high price, low market price, shortage of human labor, lack of storage facilities etc. The farmers opined that potato production would be economically viable if quality seeds with affordable price, marketing facilities with standard price, storage facilities, fertilizer and insecticides with reasonable price are ensured.
Keywords: Potato production, profitability, constraints.
Umashing Marma, M S Islam, M Biswas, P Das and P R Das
Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University, 2017, Volume 4, Number 1; Pages: 121-128
The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different stocking densities on growth performances and production potential of monosex tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) under cage culture conditions for a period of 120 days from 20 August to 16 December 2016 in Dekar haor of Sunamganj district. Three stocking densities under the experiment were maintained viz. 35, 40 and 45 fish m-3 and designated as treatment 1 (T1), treatment 2 (T2) and treatment 3 (T3), respectively and each having three replicates. Stocked fry of tilapia were fed commercial floating diet at a decreasing rate of 10-5% of body weight at thrice daily until the previous day of harvest. Average initial weight of the fingerlings was 11.0 g. Water quality parameters like water temperature, transparency, dissolved oxygen, pH, total alkalinity and ammonia nitrogen were found within favourable aquaculture range. Survival rate of tilapia varied from 91.40 to 96.10% and the highest survival rate was found in T2 (96.10%) followed by T3 (95.40%) and T1 (91.40%). Gross yield of tilapia obtained from all treatments ranged from 5.60 to 6.50 kg m-3 with the highest yield (6.50 kg m-3) in T2 and the lowest yield (5.60 kg m-3) in T1. Daily weight gain of tilapia was recorded as 1.36, 1.31 and 1.10 g in T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The highest (Tk. 383.94 m3) net profit obtained in T2 followed by T3 (Tk. 337.10 m-3) and T1 (Tk. 285.91 m-3). Cost benefit ratio (BCR) was also the highest in T2 (1.97) and the lowest in T1 (1.74). Result of the study indicates that tilapia stocking density of 40 no. m-3 is better among three treatments in respect of survival rate, growth, fish yield and economic return. Therefore, the farmers could be suggested to rear tilapia at lower stocking density (40 no. m-3) in cages to get higher growth, survival and production in a short period of time.
Keywords: Cage farming, stocking density, growth performance, survival rate, production.
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